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Describe an experiment used to test conduction of electricity in liquids.

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: When a solution that contains ions is placed in an electric field, an ion tends to move towards its respective electrode. The movement of ions leads to the conductivity of a solution. The larger the ions, the greater will be its conductivity. The conductivity of a solution can be determined by using the instrument “conductivity meter.

Complete step by step answer:
Consider sodium chloride which contains ions as \[N{a^ + }\] and \[C{l^ - }\] ions. The ionisation of sodium chloride can be written as,
\[NaCl \to N{a^ + } + C{l^ - }\]
Sodium chloride can act as an electrolytic solution since the electrolytic solution is the one that can easily dissociate as ions.
Thus, sodium chloride acts as an electrolytic solution and two electrodes such as cathode and anode are being dipped in the electrolytic solution. When the electric potential is applied between the two electrodes, then the ion present in the electrolytic solution will start to migrate. A cathode is a negative charge electrode and hence, it will attract positive charge ions while an anode is a positive charge electrode and hence it will attract the negative charge ions.
When an electric potential is passed through the electrodes dipped in sodium chloride solution, sodium ion (positive) will move towards the cathode, and chloride ion (negative) will move towards the anode. When the movement of ions occurs, it will lead to conductivity. When conductivity is increased, electricity is produced.

Note: Conductivity meter helps to measure the conductivity of the liquids. For water, the lesser the conductivity, the greater is the purity of water. Saltwater has high conductivity whereas distilled water has very low conductivity and it acts as insulators. Drinking water possesses some ions and minerals that may be necessary for our body. The high conductivity of water indicates that a lot of chemicals are present inside the solution.