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Define the term electrovalent or ionic bond.

Last updated date: 25th Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
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Hint: Ionic bond or Electrovalent bond is formed by the transfer of electrons between two elements. The element which is highly electropositive in nature loses its electron forms a cation and the element which is highly electronegative in nature gains an electron forms an anion. The number of charges formed on cation and anion depends upon the number of electrons lost and gain and the number of electrons lost or gain depends upon the valency of both elements.

Complete step by step answer:
In Ionic bond or electrovalent bond, there is linkage formed from the electrostatic forces between the oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. This type of bond or link is formed when outermost electrons (valence shell electrons) of one atom are transferred to another atom permanently
There are certain conditions for forming electrovalent bond:
Electrovalent bonds cannot be formed between the similar atoms.
High difference of electronegativity of two atoms must be required of about 2 and more for the formation of electrovalent bond.
The atom which changes into cation (+ ive ion) should possess 1, 2 or 3 valence electrons. The other atom which changes into anion (-ve ion) should possess 5, 6 or 7 electrons in the valence shell.
There should be an overall decrease in overall energy which means energy must be released.
Various compounds form electrovalent or ionic bond such as $MgC{l_2}$, $MgO$,$NaH$, \[N{a_2}S\], $Al{F_3}$ and $Ca{H_2}$

Additional information:
The strength of the ionic bond is dependent upon the charge. Greater will be the charge, more will be the strength of the compound. Compounds like $Al{F_3}$ have strong ionic bonds.

Note: Ionic bond or electrovalent are stronger than the covalent bond because of the electronegativity difference between the two atoms in ionic compounds. As to maximize the attraction between the ions, the ionic compounds tend to form crystal lattices of alternating cations and anions.
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