Hint: Chromosomes are defined as the long molecules having some or all the genetic material of an organism. It is usually the package of DNA found in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes contain genetic information to carry from one generation to another.
Homologous chromosomes – Homologous chromosomes are defined as a set or pair or chromosome which offspring received and got from its parent one from the maternal parents and one from the paternal parent. Both the chromosomes of maternal and paternal parents combine and link with each other during the time and process of fertilization.
Centromere - Centromere is defined as a specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome which attaches a pair of sister chromatids. During mitosis or meiosis, the spindle fibres get attached and linked to the centromere through kinetochore. The function of the centrosome is to behave as the site of assembly of the kinetochore.
Kinetochore - Kinetochore is defined as a disc shaped protein structure. Kinetochore is a place and site where the spindle fibres get attached during the cell division in order to pull sister chromatids apart.
Synaptonemal complex - Synaptonemal complex is defined as a protein structure which occurs between the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. This complex helps the synapsis and recombination process at the time of meiosis 1 in eukaryotic organisms.
Sister chromatids - Sister chromatids are defined as the identical copies of a chromosome that are developed by the DNA replication. Both the sister chromatids are connected together at the centromere. A pair of sister chromatids is termed as dyad.
Note: Without the presence of chromosomes, crossing over is not possible. If crossing over does not take place, then there will be no variation in the species. Chromosomes constitute genes in the beaded form. And genes are defined as the unit of inheritance which are responsible for the passage of characters from one generation to the next generation.