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Classify the roads in India on the basis of their functions?

Last updated date: 14th Jun 2024
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Hint:India has around 5,903,293 kilometres of road networks, making it on the third place among nations in road networks, worldwide (second if the EU road network is not considered). The first known road construction in India started in the ancient townships of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro of the Indus Valley Civilization. This was over 2000 years ago. Even through medieval India and during Mughal reign, roads were constructed to connect the kingdoms and towns. Modern methods of road build were started after British rule. There are six types of roads in India according to their use and capacity.

Complete answer:
There are six types of road networks in India on the basis of size, stretch and functionality;
1.National Highways: National Highways are owned by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways to link extreme parts at a long distance within the country. They are mainly two-lane roads with toll works attached to some of them. They are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East-West directions. The biggest highway in India is NH 44 with a length of 3,745 kilometres running from Srinagar to Kanyakumari.

2.State Highways: State highways are Roads linking a state capital with other districts. The State Public Works Department (PWD) is responsible for the maintenance of these roads in State and Union Territories. They also act as the link between two National Highways.

3.District Roads: These roads connect different districts with other areas in the district. These roads are maintained by the Zilla Parishad or the sections under district corporations if the district is one. They are narrow compared to highways and over bridges will be absent.
4.Rural roads: they connect rural regions and villages with the city. These roads are being constructed and maintained under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana. Special provisions are made within each area or village so that every village in India is connected to any major town through an all season motorable road.

5.Border Roads: Border roads are built to fulfil a strategic importance and to establish cross border connection with neighbouring countries. The Border Roads Organisation under the Government of India is undertaking construction and maintenance of these roads. These roads have improved accessibility in the north-east and north-west regions of the country and have helped in the economic development of this area.

6.Golden Quadrilateral: This is a new project launched by the government linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai through multiple six-lane Super Highways. The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) are connected through this project. The major objective of these Super Highways is to increase efficiency in transport and reduce the distance between major cities in India. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

Note:In order to cope with the increased demands of the Indian economy, the main roads in India are under tremendous pressure and in great need of modernisation. In addition to maintenance, it is becoming increasingly necessary to extend the network and to widen the existing roads. This will then allow the roads to accommodate increased traffic and also allow the average speed of movement on India's roads to increase accordingly.