How many chromosomes do a mature human sperm cell contain?
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 23
(d) 46

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Hint: A mature human sperm cell contains a haploid number of chromosomes. It is also known as ‘spermatozoa’. It is formed by a reduction division. The same number of chromosomes are also found in egg cells in females.

Complete answer:
A mature human sperm cell contains 23 chromosomes. In a diploid organism, like human beings, the body contains two sets of chromosomes that are 23 pairs and 46 in total. In such organisms there exist specialized cells called meiocytes. Meiocytes undergo meiosis resulting in only a single set of chromosomes (23) getting incorporated into each gamete.
To know in detail let's study spermatogenesis.
The primary sex organs in males called testis produce gametes called sperms by the process of ‘spermatogenesis.’ The predecessors of this phenomenon are immature male germ cells also known as ‘spermatogonia’. Spermatogonia are located on the inside wall of seminiferous tubules. They multiply by mitotic division and increase in numbers. Each spermatogonia is diploid and it contains 46 chromosomes. Some of the spermatogonia periodically undergo meiosis and are called ‘primary spermatocytes’. A primary spermatocyte completes the first reduction division resulting in the formation of two equal, haploid cells known as ‘secondary spermatocytes’. The second meiotic division then occurs in the secondary spermatocytes to form four equal, haploid ‘spermatids.’ These are transformed into spermatozoa by the process of ‘spermiogenesis.’ Spermatozoa contain 23 chromosomes.
So, the correct answer is ‘23.’

Note: -Meiosis is also known as a reduction division. Meiocytes are also called ‘gamete mother cells’.
-A haploid cell in human beings contains 23 chromosomes and a diploid cell contains 46 chromosomes.
-Each secondary spermatocyte has 23 chromosomes. Spermatids also contain a haploid number of chromosomes.
-Spermatogenesis begins at puberty and the resultant spermatozoa produced are nothing but sperms.