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Last updated date: 04th Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

Avicennia, Rhizophora and Atriplex are
A. Xerophytes
B. Halophytes
C. Hydrophytes
D. Mesophytes

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Hint: In some areas accumulation of salts in soil and water is so much that it affects vegetation of that place. In such areas plants are adapted to live in the saline habitat. These are called halophytes. These plants grow in marsh soil near rivers. These plants are also called mangroves.

Step by step answer:Mangroves are adapted to live in saline water and soil. These plants also survive in lack of oxygen because in such soil there is a lack of oxygen.
Roots of such plants show specific adaptations. Roots are conical and grow on the upper surface of the land and micro stomata are present on these roots. These are called pneumatophores. This helps in consuming oxygen from the environment.
Mangrove Plants also show special adaptation in seed germination. In normal plants, seeds germinate after falling on land from the plant. But in halophytes due to the salinity of the soil, a seed cannot germinate on land. Seeds do not separate from fruits on plants. Seeds remain attached and start germination. Due to germination seedlings grow and fall on the ground. This is called viviparous germination.
Some examples of halophytes are Rhizophora, Chenopodium, Salsola, Avicennia, and Atriplex.
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Hence option B is correct.
Additional information: Halophytes are classified by Warming as follows-
-Lithophilous halophytes grow on rocks near the sea.
-Heliophilous halophytes are found in muddy water near the sea.
-Psammophilous halophytes grow in a loamy soil.
-Pelophilous halophytes grow in salty clay soil.

Note: Xerophyte plants are adapted to live in the lack of water. These are found in desert areas like Rajasthan. Opuntia and Cactus are examples of xerophytes. Hydrophytes are adapted to live in water such as Water lily. Mesophytes require a medium amount of water.