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$ATP = ADP \sim P$ hypothesis was given by Lipman in
a. 1941
b. 1950
c. 1960
d. 1970

Last updated date: 19th Jul 2024
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Hint: The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysed into Adenosine di-phosphate (AMP) and Adenosine mono-phosphate (AMP). The enzyme ATP synthase catalyse the reaction. The ATP hydrolysis releases high energy which helps in the metabolism.

Complete answer:
In 1941, Lipman gave the hypothesis of breaking of the ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). The nitrogenous base adenine is bound with three phosphate groups to form ATP. It is called the energy currency of the cell. It is mainly found freely in the cells. The high energy phosphate bonds break in order to form ADP and AMP.

From the three phosphate groups, one is directly attached to the ribose with phosphate ester bond. It is a low energy bond. The phosphor-anhydride bond is formed between other two phosphate groups. It is considered as the high energy bond.

The ATP production takes place in the mitochondria by the help of the enzyme ATP synthase. This enzyme is located in the membrane of the cellular structures called mitochondria. It is also found in the chloroplast of the plant cells.

From the above information we have found that there are two high energy bonds found in the ATP that’s why only one lower energy phosphate group gets separated from the ATP and from ADP + P. It hypothesis was given in 1941.

Hence, the correct answer is option (A).

Note: The chemical formula for ATP can be given as $C_{10}H_{16}N_5O_{13}P_3$. It is related to the metabolism in the cells. The ATP binds to the metal cations with high affinity. It remains stable in aqueous solution between pH 6.8 and 7.4. The ATP hydrolysis into ADP and phosphate at extreme pH. The enthalpy released from the hydrolysis is 30.5 kJ /mol.