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Assertion: Samara is a winged achenial fruit.
Reason: Wings may or may not develop from its pericarp.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
B. Bot A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C. Only A is true and R is wrong.
D. Only A and R both are false.
E. Only A is false and R is true.

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Fruits are mainly of three types- simple, aggregate and composite fruits. Simple fruits are formed from monocarpellary ovary or multicarpellary syncarpous ovary. Aggregate fruits are formed from the multicarpellary syncarpous ovary and composite fruits develop from the complete inflorescence.

Complete answer:
Simple fruits can be classified into two types-
Dry fruits- Dry fruits are the non-fleshy fruits in which the pericarp is not differentiated into three layers.
Succulent fruits- Succulent fruits are the indehiscent fruits which means their seeds are separated after the decay of the flesh. The pericarp in these fruits are divided into three layers- epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Middle layer or mesocarp is fleshy or fibrous. Dry fruits are further categorized into three groups:
-Indehiscent or achenial fruits
-Dehiscent fruits or Capsular fruits
-Schizocarpic or splitting fruits
-Indehiscent fruits are of the following types:
Achene- Achenes are the fruits that develop from monocarpellary unilocular ovary. These are one seeded fruits with superior ovary, e.g. Clematis.
Caryopsis- These fruits develop from monocarpellary superior ovary. These fruits are unilocular and one-seeded. These fruits are present in the family Gramineae, e.g. wheat, maize and rice.
Cypsela- These fruits develop from bicarpellary, syncarpous, inferior ovaries that have basal placentation. Hairy calyx attached with the fruit is present in these fruits which are known as pappus, for example, sunflower, Cosmos, etc.
Nut- Nuts are also unilocular and one seeded fruits that develop from bi or multicarpellary syncarpous superior ovary. They have as hard and stony pericarp, for example, Anacardium, Oak, etc.
-Samara- The pericarp of these fruits becomes flat like wings. These are one seeded fruits, example, Holoptelea indica .
So, the correct answer is “Option C”.

Note: Fruits are formed from the ovary of the flower after fertilization and the ovules in the ovary develop into the seeds. Fruits that develop from the ovary are called true fruits while those developing from any other floral parts are called false fruits.