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ASSERTION: In African sleeping sickness, the parasite is transmitted by bloodsucking tse-tse fly.
REASON: In kala-azar, the parasite is transmitted to humans by sand fly.
A. Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion
B. Both Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion
C. Assertion is correct but Reason is incorrect
D. Both Assertion and Reason are incorrect

Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Hint: Disease is the state when our body is not physically, mentally, and socially active and good. It is caused by several pathogens, and these pathogens are known as vectors as One foremost example is that of the malaria that is caused by the plasmodium The plasmodium in this act as the vector.

Complete Answer:
Sleeping Sickness is a tropical disease that is caused by the flagellated protozoa. It is also known as African sleeping sickness and it is of two types Namely :
- East African sleeping sickness: It is an Acute form of disease . This causes mental illness and sometimes also may lead to death.
- West African sleeping sickness: It is a chronic form of disease. It can lead to brain damage and a person may go to the coma.
- The sleeping sickness is spread by tiny parasites that are carrying insects or fly Tsetse. It causes swelling and inflammation of the brain. The spread of this disease is generally limited up to the African continent, but few cases can be observed and seen in other few places, like if a traveller who recently travelled to the tropical area has a high chance to get bitten by the vector of this disease and may be diagnosed through this disease.
So, the assertion given in the question is exactly correct.

- Now let us see the reason given in the question that is In kala-azar, the parasite is transmitted to humans by sand fly.
- Kala-azar is also defined as visceral leishmaniasis, Kala jwar, black fever, etc. It is a disease that exists in tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa, tropical S.America, and Mediterranean areas. It is a disease caused by vector protozoans.
- Major clinical features include eruptive pyrexia, generalized granular enlargement of spleen and liver, dry, rough, and often pigmented dark skin, brittle hairs, which may fall out shortly, emaciation and anaemia that is less blood in the advanced stage.

- Kala-azar is caused by vector parasitic haemoflagellate Leishmania Donovani, an intracellular endoparasite that lives inside as parasite living in macrophages of the spleen, liver, intestinal mucosa, lymph glands, bone marrow, etc. of man. The disease spreads and is caused through the bite of a sandfly. The lifecycle of L. donovani is completed in two
hosts, namely man and sand-fly. Its amastigote stage occurs in man and the promastigote stage in sandfly.
So, the given reason is exactly correct. But the reason and assertion have no relation with each other.

So option B is correct that is Both Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion.

Note: Recent studies have shown that A person that suffers from AIDS is more likely to get suffered from these two diseases. As AIDS is a syndrome and not a particular disease the immune system gets weaker and these two pathogens can act in them very finely and cause sleeping sickness and kala azar.