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What are the seven isomers of ${{C}_{4}}{{H}_{10}}O$?

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Last updated date: 13th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Isomers are the compounds having the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements. There can be various types of isomers like, positional, functional, geometrical, etc. The presence of oxygen as a functional group without having double bonds are the compounds identified as alcohols or ethers.

Complete answer:
Isomers are defined as the compounds having the same chemical formula but having different structural representations. There can be various types of isomers by rearranging the positions of the functional groups of any compound.
We have been given a compound that has 4 carbons, 10 hydrogen and 1 oxygen, as${{C}_{4}}{{H}_{10}}O$, as the general formula of alcohols suggests that${{C}_{n}}{{H}_{2n+1}}OH$, so this must be an alcohol. As alcohol contains an oxygen atom, rearranging it can have the formula of ether as R – O – R, where R is the same or different functional group. So, 7 different isomers can be made from the formula${{C}_{4}}{{H}_{10}}O$ that consists of alcohols and ethers as:
- Straight 4 carbon chains containing alcohol isomers are$C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}C{{H}_{2}}C{{H}_{2}}OH$butan – 1 – ol;$C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}C{{H}_{2}}(OH)C{{H}_{3}}$butan – 2 – ol.
- The 3 carbon chains having methyl branch and alcohol isomers are${{(C{{H}_{3}})}_{2}}CHC{{H}_{2}}OH$ 2 – methylpropan – 1 – ol; ${{(C{{H}_{3}})}_{3}}COH$ 2 – methylpropan – 2 – ol.
- The 2 isomers of straight chain ethers can be$C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}C{{H}_{2}}OC{{H}_{3}}$1 – methoxypropane; $C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}OC{{H}_{2}}C{{H}_{3}}$ ethoxy ethane
- A branched ether can be made as ${{\left( C{{H}_{3}} \right)}_{2}}CHOC{{H}_{3}}$ 2 – methoxypropane.
So, 7 isomers of${{C}_{4}}{{H}_{10}}O$ are made as 4 alcohols and 3 ethers.

Note:
The isomers can be of various types, here we have made functional isomers in which the position of functional groups changes the structures. When the carbon skeleton is rearranged then it is called skeletal isomers, when the alkyl groups are made as straight chains or taken as branches then they are termed as positional isomers. Also, when the stereochemistry changes then they are termed as stereoisomers.