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What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?

Last updated date: 22nd Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
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Hint: Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants generate sugar, water, and oxygen by utilising carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.

Complete answer:
Photosynthesis is the synthesis of carbohydrates, water, and oxygen in the presence of solar energy and various pigments. The chemical reaction for photosynthesis is as follows: ${CO}_{2}+ {12H}_{2}{O}➝ {C}_{6}{H}_{12}{O}_{6}+ {6H}_{2}{O}+ {6O}_{2}$
Chloroplasts are membrane-bound organelles that are the site of photosynthesis. They contain pigments like chlorophyll that play important roles during photosynthesis.
Light reaction and dark reaction are the two phases of photosynthesis. All processes that require light like ATP formation, oxygen release, and absorption fall under the light reaction phase.
The dark reaction phase is dependent not on light, but on the products generated during the light reaction phase (ATP and NADPH). The dark reaction generates carbohydrates on the reduction of ${CO}_{2}$ by a process called carbon fixation.

Additional information:
Plants that produce four-carbon containing acids like malic acid and oxaloacetic acid as the first products of photosynthesis are called ${C}_{4}$ plants. ${C}_{3}$ plants are those that produce PGA acid as their first product.
A multitude of external and internal factors govern photosynthesis. External factors include light intensity and quality, ${CO}_{2}$ concentration, temperature, and water. Light falling in the 400-700nm wavelength comprises photosynthetically active radiation.
The optimum temperature ranges for photosynthesis in ${C}_{4}$ plants are 300-400C and 200-250C in ${C}_{3}$ plants.
Decrease in chlorophyll content and an increase in accumulation of end products are internal factors that reduce the rate of photosynthesis.

The light reaction is also known as the photochemical phase, while the dark reaction is also called the biosynthesis phase.
Apart from chlorophyll, photosynthetic pigments like carotenes and xanthophylls also play crucial roles in the process. Carotenes and xanthophylls act as shield pigments by preventing the photo-oxidation of chlorophyll.