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What are the differences between DNA and RNA?

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: The polypeptide molecule, which determines the composition of an organism capable of self-propagation and variation, plays a fundamental role in determining the structure and function of cellular substances found in an organism's nucleus and cytoplasm.

Complete answer:

DeoxyRibonucleic Acid is also known as DNA. It is a double-stranded molecule which consists of a long nucleotide chain.RNA is also called ribonucleic acid. It is typically a single-strand helix composed of shorter nucleotide chains.
It consists of the bases of deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.It consists of a foundation of ribose sugar, phosphate, adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil.
DNA is present in the nucleus, with mitochondria also possessing a small amount of DNA.In the nucleolus, RNA forms and then, depending on the type of RNA produced, travels to specialised regions of the cytoplasm.
A long, ladder-like macromolecule that twists to create a double helix. The geometry of the helix in DNA is β-form.Generally, RNA is single stranded. The helix geometry of the RNA is alpha-shaped.
For a specific species, for every cell, the DNA number remains constant. It typically does not exist as a single molecule, but as a tightly-associated pair of molecules instead.RNA numbers can vary from cell to cell. As a single molecule, it can exist.
It has self-replicating property.RNA is synthesised on an as-needed basis from DNA.
For the most part, complementary types are between two DNA strands.Complementary structures with strands of either DNA or RNA may form RNA strands.
DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA because of its deoxyribose sugar that comprises one less oxygen-containing group of hydroxyls. Under alkaline conditions, DNA is stable.RNA, which contains ribose sugar, is more reactive than DNA and, in alkaline conditions, is not stable. The larger helical grooves of RNA indicate it is more readily subjected to enzyme attack.
DNA is susceptible to ultraviolet light damage. Relatively lower is its mutation rate.RNA is more resistant than DNA to damage from UV light. It has a comparatively higher mutation rate.
Long-term genetic information storage; the transfer of genetic information for the development of other cells and new organisms.This is used to move the genetic code to produce proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes. RNA is used in certain organisms for the transfer of genetic information and may have been the molecule used in primitive organisms to store genetic blueprints.

Note: DNA is the blueprint of life to be passed between generations while genetic information is transmitted using RNA. In cell biology, these most significant molecules are responsible for storing and reading genetic information that underpins all life.