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Are parthenocarpy and apomixis different phenomena? Explain the benefits.

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Last updated date: 21st Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Agricultural researchers are trying to find various methods which will maintain hybrid traits indefinitely. One such of the possible methods is development of seeds through apomixis. Parthenocarpy is being used a lot with the help of a plant hormone named as auxin.

Complete answer:
Apomixis: flowering plants have evolved a special method, to produce seed without fertilisation, called apomixis. Even though seeds in general, are produced by fertilisation. Apomixis is genetically controlled. Genes controlling apomixis are being searched.
Type of apomixis:
1) Sporophytic budding: embryo arises from diploid sporophytic cells such as nucellus or integuments (other than eggs).
2) Recurrent agamospermy: in this method, a diploid embryo sac is formed from a megaspore mother cell of nucellar cell which has a diploid egg or oosphere.
It is not economical for the farmers. Since embryos in apomictic seeds often develop from diploid cells, segregation of traits will not occur and the new seeds will contain all the traits of the hybrid variety.Apomixis is genetically controlled. Genes controlling apomixis are being searched. As soon as they are located, efforts will be made to transfer them into hybrid varieties.
Parthenocarpy is the phenomenon of production of fruit without fertilization. These fruits are seedless. And often referred to as seedless or virgin fruits. It is form of asexual type of reproduction seen in plants. It is commonly seen in plants which have no ovaries or which have lost the ability to reproduce sexually.

Note:
Alternatively, seeds can be generated from nonsexual cells too. These plants are perfect clones of mother plants. These products are fully viable without pollination. due to segregation in the progeny it is difficult to maintain hybrid characters a the upcoming generation