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How are amino acids, polypeptides, and proteins related?

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Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Amino acids are the building block of proteins. Proteins are the building block of our body and are formed by the chain of amino acid sequences. The chains of amino acids are called polypeptides.

Complete answer:
The special organic molecules used by living organisms to make proteins are called amino acids. Their structure consists of
1)A basic functional group- Amine
2)An acidic functional group- Carboxylic acid
3)A hydrogen atom
4)An organic group or side chain.

The side chain of the amino acids is specific to each amino acid. The main elements in their structure are- Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and various other elements that- change according to the side chain of the amino acids. They combine to form proteins in our body that help in the- coordination of metabolic reactions, various body functions, formation and maintenance of the body tissues, controlling the activity of genes, and other life-sustaining activities.

The amino acids are linked to each other through covalent bonds called peptide bonds and form an amino acid chain or polypeptides. These chains are short and comprise 2 to 50 amino acids. The polypeptide chain can be classified into various categories based on the number of amino acids- dipeptides, tripeptides, oligopeptides, etc.

This polypeptide chain or the amino acid chain is folded in various structures to form proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two or more polypeptide chains fold together to form a protein. Based on their structure and the arrangement of their polypeptide chains, proteins can be classified into four categories- primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. They help in the- coordination of metabolic reactions, various body functions, formation and maintenance of the body tissues, controlling the activity of genes, and other life-sustaining activities.

Note: There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids that can be classified into- Essential amino acids and Non- essential amino acids. The amino acids which can be synthesized in our body are called Non-essential amino acids. The amino acids which cannot be synthesized in our body and must be obtained through diets or outer sources are called- Essential amino acids.