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Adhesive pads of fungi penetrate the host with the help of
A) Mechanical pressures and enzymes
B) Hooke and suckers
C) Softening by enzymes
D) Only by mechanical pressure

Last updated date: 05th Mar 2024
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IVSAT 2024
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Hint: A fungi belongs to the group of eukaryotic organisms which includes yeast, moulds and mushroom. Fungi are decomposers which obtain their food from by absorbing dissolved molecules by typically secreting digestive enzymes into the environment. Fungi are essential to recycle nutrients in all terrestrial habitats.

Complete answer:
A fungus comprises about 144,000 known species, belonging to the kingdom Fungi. These are a group of eukaryotic organisms. They are mainly classified into five phyla of fungi. These include Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota, and a recently determined phylum Glomeromycota.
The fungus is a microorganism that includes moulds, yeast, mushrooms, mildews, and rusts. Organisms such as oomycete and slime moulds are often mistaken as organisms belonging to the kingdom fungi. They are fungus-like organisms and do not belong to the kingdom fungi.
They are found to be either terrestrial or aquatic in habitat nature. Mobility in fungi is attained through means of growth. The body of fungi is called the mycelia which are formed due to growth from the hyphae (filament) tips. The hyphae have the ability to penetrate the host cell wall. This is achieved by the action of adhesive pads of fungi. These adhesive pads utilize enzymes and mechanical pressure to penetrate the host cell. The fungi digest the cellulose present in the host cell wall by the action of cellulose. This enables the hyphae to penetrate the host cell wall. The fungi then proceed to externally digest the organic matter. The digest organic matter is then absorbed into the mycelia.

Therefore, the correct answer is option A. Mechanical pressures and enzymes.

Fungi lack the pigment compound called chlorophyll and are unable to photosynthesize. Presence of chitin in their cell wall distinguishes them characteristically from other plants, protists, bacteria and animals. Some species of fungi are used in pharmaceutical preparations such as the antibiotic penicillin prepared from the fungi Penicillium, and in food preparations such as yeast in bread, mushrooms, etc. Some fungi species are poisonous to humans and can cause diseases such as athlete’s foot, ringworm, aspergillosis, etc.
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