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Last updated date: 01st Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

A set up consisting of a bulb, salt solution and a magnetic compass is arranged in such a manner that bulb and salt solution come in between the electric wires connected to the cell and hence complete the circuit. The magnetic compass is wrapped with the connecting wires. When switched on, current flows through salt solution, the bulb glows and the needle deflects. Which of the following effects of current is involved in this?

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Hint:A compass is a tool that displays the cardinal directions for navigation and geographic orientation. It is typically made up of a magnetised needle or other part, such as a compass card or compass rose, that can pivot to align with magnetic north. Other methods, such as gyroscopes, magnetometers, and GPS receivers, can be used.

Complete answer:
While current is the movement of electrons, current and electron flow in opposite directions. Electrons flow from negative to positive and current flows from positive to negative. The number of electrons travelling through a conductor's cross-section in one second determines current.

Heat energy is produced in a conductor as current flows through it. The heating effect of an electric current is determined by the conductor's resistance ($R$). A greater resistance generates more heat. A current bearing conductor generates a magnetic field in its vicinity.This magnetic field exerts energy on the magnetic needle of the compass, causing the needle to deflect.

When the circuit is turned on, current flows into it. The bulb glows due to the heating effect; as it passes into salt solution, it creates a chemical effect; and the magnetic compass needle is deflected due to the magnetic field surrounding the conductor.

Note:The magnetic field is a field generated by the action of an electric charge or magnet. The magnetic field is the region surrounding a travelling electric charge or magnetic substance where magnetism operates. Magnetic fields are represented using magnetic field lines. It is a visual tool for displaying the magnetic field's direction and power.