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A patient brought to the hospital with myocardial infarction is immediately given:
(a) Streptokinase
(b) Cyclosporin-A
(c) Statins
(d) Penicillin

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: A myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack occurs when blood flow to the heart reduces or is blocked, leading to damage to the heart muscle. It can be caused due to various reasons and immediate patient care is required in this case. There are medications provided to reduce the formation of blood clots to restart the flow of blood through the heart.

Complete step by step answer:
- A myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when the blood flow to the heart is reduced or is blocked due to plaques or blood clots, which causes damage to the heart muscle. This is commonly known as a heart attack.
- Immediate care needs to be provided to the patient suffering from an MI before it leads to heart failure or death.
- Streptokinase is an enzyme produced by many species of streptococci that activates plasminogen, a factor that dissolves fibrin and thus blood clots.
So, the correct answer is ‘Streptokinase’.

Additional information:
- Symptoms of MI include chest pain and discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, and can further lead to heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.
- Its risk factors include excessive smoking and drinking, high blood pressure, lack of exercise, diabetes, obesity, etc.
- Streptokinase is also known as Tissue Plasminogen Activator or TPA.
- Cyclosporin A is an immunosuppressant and is used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and in organ transplants to prevent rejection.
- Statins are lipid-lowering medications that are provided to patients of heart disease as a long-term medication after heart surgery to prevent any further damage to the heart.
- Penicillins are a group of antibiotics that treat a broad spectrum of bacterial infections.

Note:
- Thrombolysis treatment is also carried out in the treatment of stroke and pulmonary embolism.
- Other medications to stop the formation of clots are tissue plasminogen activator, reteplase, streptokinase, and tenecteplase.
- Aspirin which is an anticoagulant is also given as a primary medication to reduce clotting.