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National Flag

Last updated date: 04th Mar 2024
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What is the National Flag?

A national flag is a symbol and representation of a country. It is flown by the country's government, although it can also be flown by its residents. A national flag is usually based on the unique meanings insight for its colours and symbols, and it may also be used as a symbol of the country. The design of a national flag is occasionally changed in response to significant historical events. The act of burning or destroying a national flag is highly significant. This article will cover the history of the flag and the details about the national flag of India.

History of National flag

Flags have a long history as military standards and field signs. With the introduction of the nautical flag during the era of sail in the early 17th century, the practice of flying flags denoting the nation of origin outside of the context of battle became popular. The Union Jack flag was first flown in 1603, when James VI of Scotland acquired the English and Irish thrones, bringing the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland together in a personal union.

A new flag was defined in a royal order on April 12, 1606, to symbolise this regal union between England and Scotland, according to which the flags of England and Scotland would be linked together, becoming the flag of Great Britain and the first Union Flag. National flags began to be exhibited in civilian situations with the rise of nationalist feeling in the late 18th century. The US flag, which was initially used as a naval ensign in 1777 but became a generic symbol of the United States after the American Revolution, and the French Tricolore, which became a symbol of the Republic in the 1790s, are two notable early examples.

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, most European countries adopted a national flag, which was typically based on previous (mediaeval) war banners. Denmark's flag standards were formalised in 1748, based on a 14th-century design. Switzerland's flag, which is based on mediaeval war banners, was first presented in 1889. The Netherlands established two national flags in the year 1813. (like a red-white-blue or an orange-white-blue tricolour, the final decision in favour of red was made in the year 1937). The tricolour flag gained a lot of traction in Europe, with nations such as Ireland, Romania, and Estonia adopting it.

National Flag in India

The Indian National Flag is also called Tiranga. The Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, is navy blue in the centre of a horizontal rectangle shape with tricolour saffron, white, and green. On 22 July 1947, the Constituent Assembly approved it in its current shape, and on 15 August 1947, it was designated as the official flag of the Dominion of India. The flag of the Republic of India was kept after that. The word "tricolour" is nearly usually used in India to refer to the Indian national flag. The flag is based on the Swaraj flag, which was created by Pingali Venkayya for the Indian National Congress. 

The flag is legally required to be made of khadi, a type of hand-spun fabric or silk popularised by Mahatma Gandhi. The Bureau of Indian Standards specifies the flag's production process and standards. The Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission have the authority to manufacture the flag, which it distributes to regional cooperation. The Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha is the only producer of the flag as of 2009.

The Flag Code of India, as well as other laws about national symbols, control the use of the flag. The Supreme Court of India instructed the Government of India to alter the act to enable private people to use flags after hearing an appeal by a private citizen, Naveen Jindal, in 2002. Following that, the Indian Union Cabinet modified the code to allow for restricted use. In 2005, the law was revised once again to allow for some additional uses, such as adaptations on particular types of clothing.

Construction and Design Details of Indian National Flag

The Indian national flag has a width: height aspect ratio of 3:2 according to the Flag Code of India. The flag's three horizontal bars (saffron, white, and green) are all the same size. The Ashoka Chakra contains twenty-four spokes that are equally spaced.

The Ashoka Chakra's size is not mentioned in the flag code, however, a table in section 4.3.1 of IS1: Manufacturing Standards for the Indian Flag describes precise flag and chakra sizes.

Flag Size

Width and Height (mm)

Diameter of Ashoka Chakra (mm)


6300 × 4200



3600 × 2400



2700 × 1800



1800 × 1200



1350 × 900



900 × 600



450 × 300



225 × 150



150 × 100


The Ashoka Chakra must be printed or painted in navy blue on both sides of the flag, according to both the Flag code and IS1. Except for Navy Blue, the following is a list of specified shades for all colours used on the national flag from IS1: Manufacturing specifications for the Indian Flag as established in the year of 1931 CIE Colour Specifications with illuminant C. The IS:1803–1973 standard specifies the navy blue colour.






India saffron (Kesari)










India green





Who Designed the Indian National Flag?

Our national flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya. A traditional spinning wheel stood in the centre, symbolising Gandhi's objective of making Indians self-sufficient by allowing them to make their clothes, with a red stripe for Hindus and a green stripe for Muslims. The design was later tweaked to incorporate a white stripe in the centre for other religious communities (as well as a symbol of peace amongst them) and a backdrop for the spinning wheel, replacing red with saffron. The three bands were later allocated new meanings to prevent sectarian connotations with the colour scheme: courage and sacrifice, peace and truth, and faith and chivalry, respectively, to avoid sectarian associations with the colour scheme. 

Adoption of National Flags and Relevance of the Colours

The specially constituted Constituent Assembly decided a few days before India's independence on August 15, 1947, that the Indian flag must be acceptable to all parties and communities. The Swaraj flag was modified, but the tricolour of saffron, white, and green remained the same. The Ashoka Chakra, which represents the everlasting wheel of law, took the place of the charkha. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, a philosopher who eventually became India's first Vice President and second President, clarified and described the adopted flag as follows:

Saffron, or Bhagwa, is a symbol of renunciation or disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent about monetary gain and focus on their work. The white in the middle represents light, the road of truth that should guide our conduct. The green represents our relationship to (the) earth, as well as our relationship to the plant life that exists here and on which all other life is dependent. The wheel of the law of dharma is the "Ashoka Chakra" at the centre of the white. The guiding principle of people who operate under this flag should be truth or Satya, dharma or virtue. The wheel, once again, represents movement. Stagnation leads to death. In motion, there is life. India should no longer be resistant to change instead, it must go forward.


A national flag is a symbol and representation of a country. It is flown by the country's government, although it can also be flown by its residents. Flags have a long history as military standards and field signs. The Union Jack flag was first flown in 1603 when James VI of Scotland acquired the English and Irish thrones.

FAQs on National Flag

1. Who created the Indian national flag?

Our national flag was created by Pingali Venkayya who was a freedom warrior and Mahatma Gandhi's follower. Pingali Venkayya developed tricolour, and the Indian flag is based on his design.

2. What was the first national flag of India?

The first national flag of India was raised at Calcutta's Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park) on August 7, 1906. The flag was made up of three horizontal red, yellow, and green stripes.

3. Why is Ashoka Chakra blue?

The Ashoka Chakra, which replaces the pre-independence version of the flag's charkha symbol, is depicted in navy blue on a white background. According to the chakra, life is found in movement, while death is found in stagnation. It represents the dynamism of a peaceful transition.