The motherboard is also referred to as a circuit board for the computer system. It is also called the logic board or the mainboard. In the computer system, the motherboard is the biggest component that controls all the other components of the computer system and bridges a link between all components. Various components such as ROM, CPU, RAM, PCI slots, USB ports, and other components are connected to the motherboard. The controller’s devices such as DVD, hard disk, mouse, and keyboard are also connected to the motherboard. The computer system does not start without the motherboard and it acts as the backbone for starting the system.
Components of Motherboard
Keyboard and Mouse
There are 2 types of connectors for mouse and keyboard. The first one is the PS/2 connector & the second is the USB connector.
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
The USB port is used to connect various types of devices such as keyboards, mouse, cameras, scanner, printers, and other devices. The main purpose of the USB port is to connect the computer motherboard and other peripheral devices. The peripheral device can be connected or disconnected from the computer system by just inserting or removing them before the system restarts which is one of the main advantages of the USB Port
Parallel Port: The old printers that were used in the past can be connected through a parallel port. This port uses multiple wires to send or receive multiple bits of data at the same time. Whereas, the serial port uses only one wire at a time. The parallel port uses a 25 pin female DB-type connector.
CPU Chip: The central processing unit controls all the functions of the computer. It controls the overall flow of tasks and functions of the computer. The central processing unit is commonly referred to as the brain of the computer system.
RAM Slots: The RAM slots are used to connect the RAM (memory) with the computer system. In a computer system, there are primarily two RAM slots but in some cases, there can be four or more slots in the motherboard which increases the memory of the computer system.
Floppy Controller: The older motherboard chip consists of a 34-pin type ribbon cable to connect the computer system with the floppy drive. The ribbon connector connects the motherboard with the computer system.
IDE Controller: Integrated drive electronics (IDE) is a component that is issued for hard drive control. At present, the computer system does not support the IDE controller. They are also referred to as ATA or Parallel ATA.
PCI Slot: The PCI or the peripheral component interface is mainly used to connect the expansion cards with the computer. The other PCI devices such as the sound card, network card, video, card, modems, and other devices can also be connected. At present, the computer system does not support the PCI expansion.
ISA Slot: Industry-standard architecture (ISA) is the standard architecture for expansion buses and is issued to connect input devices and modems.
CMOS Battery: The CMOS battery is used to store the BIOS settings on the motherboard and is capable of storing the time and data in it.
AGP Slot: AGP (Accelerated Graphics slot) is a computer slot to attach the video card to the system. This is a high-speed slot to transfer data at a higher speed.
CPU Slot: The CPU slot connects the central processing unit to the motherboard of the computer system.
Power Supply Slot: The power supply slot provides an electric supply of around 110 ac power to the computer system. This connector consists of 20-pins that are used for maintaining the power supply of the computer system.