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Which is the most effective application of monoclonal antibodies?

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Last updated date: 25th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint:-An antibody is a type of protein that is large in size and appeared like a Y-shape. The antibody is also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig). These types of protein are produced mainly by plasma cells and these are applied to the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

Complete Answer:-
The antibody, which is denoted by Ab, can be defined as a large type of protein that is generated by the plasma cells. The antibody is also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig). These large proteins have a shape like Y. These protein molecules are mainly involved in the immune system of the body. These protein substances become bound to some foreign particles and attack them which are known as antigens. The antigens inspired the production of antibodies by the immune system.
A monoclonal antibody is a type of antibody that is generated by cloning a unique type of white blood cell. They are represented as mAb or moAb.
Monoclonal antibodies may have a monovalent affinity that is able to bind only to the same epitope that is the part of an antigen and recognized by the antibody. There are other antibodies present known as polyclonal antibodies which are bound to multiple epitopes and they are generated by several different antibody-secreting plasma cells. There are chances to generate monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to virtually any suitable substance, and then they can serve to detect or purify it.
The most effective application of monoclonal antibodies is in the treatment of diseases which is done in the form of a treatment drug. As this type of antibodies are able to bind to specific epitopes on an antigen and therefore, they can target the diseased or damaged cells and they are cheaper to develop than conventional drugs. As an example, monoclonal antibodies can be applied in the treatment of cancer utilizing a treatment procedure which is known as radioimmunotherapy. In this treatment method, a monoclonal antibody is combined with a small radioactive particle which is helping to transport the radiation treatment directly to cancer cells. This will reduce the effect of radiation on healthy cells.

Note:- An antibody in the human body is a component produced by the immune system of the body. It is a component of protein and has a shape like Y, also large in size. They are produced by the plasma cells. A monoclonal antibody is a type of antibody. They are generated by cloning a unique type of white blood cell. This type of antibody can bind with the same type of epitope. Therefore, they are used in the treatment of various fatal diseases such as cancer.