Hint: This is the functional unit of nature in which all the living organisms interact among themselves and also with their surrounding physical environment. There exist different trophic levels in an ecosystem such as primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer.
Complete answer: The interaction of biotic and abiotic components of nature results in the formation of a structure called an ecosystem. An ecosystem may vary greatly in its size, from a small pond to a dense forest or a deep sea. Since this whole system is too big and complicated to be studied at one time, it is conveniently divided into two categories namely the terrestrial and the aquatic. Under ‘terrestrial ecosystems’ come forest, grassland and desert, while pond, lake, wetland, river, and estuary are included in ‘aquatic ecosystems’.
Additional Information: -The components of an ecosystem are seen to function as a unit when the following aspects are taken into consideration: productivity, decomposition, energy flow, and nutrient cycling. -‘Productivity’ is defined as the rate with which biomass is produced. -Decomposing organisms break down complex organic matter into inorganic substances like water, carbon dioxide, and nutrients. This process is called ‘decomposition.’ -Sun is considered the source of energy for all the ecosystems on earth. The only exception to this is the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem. -The cyclic movement of nutrients through the different components of an ecosystem is known as ‘nutrient cycling,
Note: -There is something called ‘man-made ecosystems’. Crop fields and aquariums are examples of such types of synthetic ecosystems. -The two main structural features of an ecosystem are species composition and stratification. -‘Ecosystem services’ are the products of various processes that take place in an ecosystem.
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