Endemic species are native to a geographic area and therefore have a restricted area. The diversity of these species is measured in terms of a unit called the number of species. It gives an indicator of the number, type, location (geographic) and other variations in a particular site, i.e. , Primulla and potentilla at high altitude of the Himalayas.
There are 25 clearly defined zones in the world, called "hot spots", home to about 50,000 endemic plant species, or 20% of the world's total flora. The location defined by India's "hotspots" is the Western Ghats and the Northeast regions. About 4,900 species of flowering plants account for 33% of recorded flora in the country.
These are spread over 141 genera belonging to 47 families. The Western Ghats are known to harbor 14 endemic species of caecilians (i.e. d. Amphibians without legs) of the 15 recorded to date in the region.
The causes of species loss are complex and varied, and among these are:
(1) Modification, degradation and loss of habitats due to colonization and clear is laying forest areas for settlement or agricultural expansion, LODG commercial Ings, large Hydel diets, fire, human and animal pressure, etc.
(2) Overexploitation, mainly for commercial (and often illegal) purposes such as meat, fur, skins, organs, medicines, etc.
(3) the accidental or deliberate introduction of exotic species that may threaten native flora and fauna directly through predation or competition and Indi also by correcting natural habitat or the introduction of disease.
(4) Pollution (air and water) underlines ecosystem, mismanagement of waste and agriculture threaten INDUSTRIAL terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems system.
(5) Increase in global surface temperature from 2 ° C to 6 ° C (global warming).
(6) Other possible reasons for species loss could be poor use of agrochemicals and pesticides, a rapidly growing human population, inequitable land distribution, economic and political policies and constraints.
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