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What do xylem vessels carry?

Last updated date: 21st Jul 2024
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Hint: Xylem is one of two types of vascular plant transportation tissue. xylem mainly carries water from the roots into the stems and leaves, but it also carries nutrients. The word xylem tissue means wood. The whole body of the plant is woody therefore xylem throughout the plant. The term was coined by Carl Nageli in \[1858\].

Complete answer:
As we discussed above- xylem transports water and minerals through vessel elements and tracheid, which are dead at maturity and have a primary and secondary cell wall. In pits, the secondary cell wall is either thin or not present allowing water to flow laterally.
Long trachea elements transporting water are the most distinguishing xylem cells. Tracheid and vessels are differentiated by their shape like- vessel elements are shorter and are connected into long tubes that are called vessels.
Location: xylem is found in non-woody and non-woody vascular bundles. xylem is found in woody plants. Found in secondary xylem, by a meristem called vascular cambium in woody plants. There are also two other cell types- parenchyma and fibers.
Primary xylem as the name suggests primary so, it is formed during primary growth from procambium. It includes protoxylem and metaxylem. Metaxylem develops after protoxylem but before secondary xylem.
Secondary xylem is formed from the vascular transformation during secondary growth. Although secondary xylem is also found in members of gymnosperm groups Geophyte and Ginkgophyta and to cycadophyta.
Pressure flow hypothesis also takes place in xylem transport where sugars produced in leaves and other green tissues are kept in phloem system which creates a solute pressure carrying a far lower load of solutes water and minerals.
Xylem development can be described by four terms- centrarch, exarch, endarch and mesarch. As it develops its nature changes from protoxylem to metaxylem that is- first xylem to after xylem. In the study of plant morphology, protoxylem and metaxylem patterns are arranged as important.
The protoxylem and metaxylem in stems and roots have four main patterns of arrangement.

Phloem is the other important transport tissue in vascular plants. It carries out photosynthesis products to plants which helps in making food of plants. It provides necessary nutrients to plant parts. It transports sucrose and amino acids between leaves and plants. It is also a pathway to signaling molecules and has a structural function in plants.