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Last updated date: 22nd Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint:Chemistry is a study of different compounds and elements that have physical properties and chemical properties. These elements are arranged in a periodic table on the basis of their respective atomic number. Every element has its specific atomic number that tells us about the number of protons present in the nucleus.

Complete step-by-step answer:In periodic table, the chemical elements are arranged in vertical columns called groups, and horizontal rows called periods. The first thirty elements in the periodic table have specific symbols. Let us see the first thirty elements.
S. No.Name of the elementSymbol of the element
1Hydrogen$H$
2Helium$He$
3Lithium$Li$
4Beryllium$Be$
5Boron$B$
6Carbon$C$
7Nitrogen$N$
8Oxygen$O$
9Fluorine$F$
10Neon$Ne$
11Sodium$Na$
12Magnesium$Mg$
13Aluminium$Al$
14Silicon$Si$
15Phosphorus$P$
16Sulphur$S$
17Chlorine$Cl$
18Argon$Ar$
19Potassium$K$
20Calcium$Ca$
21Scandium$Sc$
22Titanium$Ti$
23Vanadium$V$
24Chromium$Cr$
25Manganese$Mn$
26Iron$Fe$
27Cobalt$Co$
28Nickel$Ni$
29Copper$Cu$
30Zinc$Zn$

As we move from top to bottom in a group, the atomic size of an element increases because new shells are added in an atom, that increases the distance between the outermost electrons and nucleus. As we move from left to right in a period, the atomic size decreases because the electrons are added to the same shell, therefore they will experience the greater pull from the nucleus.
As we move from top to bottom in a group, the metallic character increases and non – metallic character decreases. This is because there is an increase in the atomic size, that will remove the valence electron easily. As we move from left to right in a period, the metallic character decreases and non – metallic character increases. This is because there is a decrease in the atomic size, therefore, the electrons are not removed easily.

Note:Elements are classified as metals and non – metals on the basis of chemical and physical properties.
Metals: Metals are defined as the electropositive elements that have the ability to donate electrons and form positive ions.
Non – metals: Non – metals are defined as the electronegative elements that have the ability to accept electrons and form negative ions.
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