Three critical research areas of biotechnology are. 1. Providing the best catalyst in the form of the improved organisms usually a microbe or pure enzyme. 2. Multiple Ovulation Transfer Technology (MOET). 3. Create optimal conditions through engineering for a catalyst to act. 4. Downstream processing technologies.
Hint: The word “BIOTECHNOLOGY” means the combination of living (bio) and techniques (technology). It deals with the techniques of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms in order to produce products and different processes useful for humans. Biotechnology has been in wide use to improve the quality of human life.
Complete answer: Biotechnology has a lot of applications in case of enzymes as these help us to know the function of the chemical or biochemical reaction. In the case of increase of food production the Green revolution was a massive success in tripling the food supply though it was not enough to meet the needs. Plants, bacteria, fungi, animals whose genes are altered by manipulation are called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) which has been useful in many ways.
Multiple Ovulation Transfer Technology is the technique to increase the reproductive rate of organisms. It is used in advanced cattle breeding where multiple eggs are fertilized in an animal which is not a critical research part in biotechnology. It is a conventional embryo flush.
Enzymes are also known as Biocatalysts having a societal need in foods, beverages, detergent, pharmaceuticals and biofuel industries. Thus for an enzyme to express its maximum efficiency it has to be given optimal conditions to act such as specific temperature and pH. Thus it is a field of critical research in biotechnology.
The world of biotechnology comprises various processes and one such process is the downstream processing which deals with the recovery and purification of the products from animals or plant tissues. The other process is called the upstream process. Thus it is also a very critical research area of biotechnology.
Hence option (1), (3) & (4) are the correct options.
Note: The field of biotechnology is a vast field which has some ethical issues too. Certain morality should be maintained while using or harming animals for the research and experimental purposes. Gene modification may have unpredictable results. Biopiracy is also a big concern for this field so keeping in mind all of these a strict guideline should be followed for the processes exploring the essence of biotechnology.