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The principle of column chromatography is
A. Capillary action
B. Gravitational force
C. Differential absorption of the substance on the solid phase
D. Differential absorption of the substance on the phase

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Last updated date: 22nd Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Chromatography technique is used to separate the chemical compounds of a mixture. The separation is based upon the absorption of the chemical compounds of the mixture or mobile phase on the stationary phase on the column.

Complete step by step answer:
Chromatography is a lab technique used to separate the mixture. In this technique the mixture is dissolved in a liquid that is known as the mobile phase and a system is taken that is known as the stationary phase.
In column chromatography, a solid adsorbent such as silica get or alumina is placed in a column such as a tube or glass so the stationary phase is solid in column chromatography. The size of the column is decided on the basis of chemical compounds that have to separate.
The mobile phase is the solution of the mixture in solvents.
As the mobile phase runs on the column, the different chemical compounds of the mixture have a different affinity for the solid adsorbent. So, the chemical compounds get absorbed on the solid adsorbent.
The column chromatography is not based upon capillary action so, option (A) is not correct.
The column chromatography is not based upon gravitational force so, option (B) is not correct.
The stationary phase in column chromatography on which the compounds get absorbed is solid so, option (C) is correct.
Option (D) tells the absorption of the compounds on the phase that is a principle of all chromatography. For particular column chromatography, solid phase is used so the option (D) is incorrect.

Therefore, Option C is correct.

Note:
The mobile phase goes through the stationary phase. The chemical compounds of the mixture have different affinity, for the stationary phase so, according to their affinity they get absorbed hence separated. This is the general principle of chromatography. Different type of chromatography has a different type of stationary phase.