Question

# Nitration of aniline in the strong acidic medium also gives $m -$ nitroaniline because ________.A: In absence of substitutes, the nitro group always goes to $m -$ positions.B: In spite of substituents, the nitro group always goes to only $m -$ positions.C: In strong acidic medium aniline is present as anilinium ion.D: In electrophilic substitution reactions, the amino group is Meta directive.

Hint: $m -$ nitroaniline is also called $3 -$ nitroaniline. It is a volatile substance used as a raw material in production of dyes. It is stable in neutral, basic as well as acidic medium. It is classified as not readily biodegradable.
In nitration of aniline nitric acid oxidizes aniline to anilinium ion. This anilinium ion is a meta directive due to which $m -$ nitroaniline is formed. ${C_6}{H_5}NH_3^ +$ is anilinium ion. In this nitrogen is already having four bonds (one with benzene ring and three with other hydrogen atoms) this means it has no lone pair. This means there will be no conjugation (shifting of negative charge) but there is positive charge on nitrogen atom this means there will be negative inductive effect due to nitrogen. Due to which position where positive charge will be farthest from nitrogen atom will be most stable also these farthest positions are para and then Meta. Due to which Meta nitroaniline is also formed.