Hint: The solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently submerged with water is referred to as land. Throughout history, the vast majority of human activity has taken place on land that supports farmland, biodiversity, and other natural resources. Any life forms, such as terrestrial plants and animals, have evolved from ancestor organisms that first appeared in bodies of water.
The energy of molecules in a substance is measured by temperature. They move around as the temperature rises.Solar heating, which turns on at dawn and off at dusk, regulates the Earth's surface temperature. During the day, the surface heats up, and at night, it cools down. Unusual wind activities, in which warm or cold air flows across the surface, are an exception to this rule. Surface temperature changes heat or cool the air above, causing air circulation (wind).
The sun provides a remarkably consistent supply of energy to the outer atmosphere, which scientists refer to as the solar constant.The atmosphere absorbs, transmits, and scatters this flow, with the transmitted portion being mirrored, absorbed, or dispersed.The Earth's crust is made up of about 71% water and 29% soil.
The way the sun heats water and ground differs significantly. Water has a greater heat potential (four times), which is the amount of heat (measured in calories) needed to raise the temperature by one degree (Celsius). Water surface temperatures change much more slowly than land temperatures, meaning land areas are mostly hotter during the day and colder at night than the surrounding ocean.
Note: Since land heats faster than water, solar heating of the Earth's surface is irregular, causing air to melt, spread, and rise over land while cooling and sinking over colder water surfaces. The equator, where the sun shines immediately, warms rather than the poles, where the sun is low in the sky. Perpendicular to the sun's ray path, surfaces heat up faster than those at an angle. Conduction carries this differential heating to the air above, causing air expansion and pressure changes. Wind is caused by fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Because of the solar heating effects, every shoreline is a wind machine.