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What is the difference between a sigma bond and a pi bond?

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Last updated date: 25th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Bonds or chemical bonds are the connection between atoms which keep them together and form a chemical compound. This connection between atoms is known as chemical bonding. This bonding gives rise to many compounds we see everyday.

Complete answer:
Sigma bondPi bond
Sigma bonds ( $ \sigma $ ) are formed by sideways overlapping of atoms involved in bonding. Pi bonds ( $ \Pi $ ) are formed by lateral overlapping of atoms involved in bonding.
They are stronger bonds.They are weaker bonds.
They are only one in number between any two atoms.They can be more than one in the same molecule.
They can be formed by all orbitals.They can be formed by only p,d and f orbitals.
Extent of overlapping is more.Extent of overlapping is less.
Sigma bonds are difficult to break because these have greater stability.Pi bonds are easier to break because these have lesser stability.

Let us now take an example of nitrogen molecule:
-It contains in total three bonds as it’s valency is three so in order to be electronically neutral a nitrogen atom will share three electrons with another atom.
-By this we can say that a nitrogen molecule will definitely have one sigma bond and the remaining two will be a pi bond.

Note:
You can choose more points of difference apart from the given in the solution. Some basic differences are mentioned and as you increase your scope of study more and more details can be included. Overlapping is more in the case of pi bonds though they overlap laterally.