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Describe the structure of a neuron with the help of a neat, labelled diagram.

Last updated date: 22nd Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
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Hint: Neurons are also known as nerve cells. They send and receive signals from our brain. Whereas neurons have a lot in common with other types of cells, but they are structurally and functionally very unique.

Complete Answer:
Neuron is a specialized cell that is involved in transmitting information between electrical and chemical signals. They can be found in the brain, spinal cord and the peripheral nerves. A neuron is also called the nerve cell.
The structure of a neuron differs in their shape and size and it usually depends upon their functions and their location. Neurons are known as the structural and functional units of the nervous system. When a group of neurons come together it forms a nerve. Neurons are the structural and functional units of the nervous system. There are two types of neurons present in humans-
1. Sensory Neurons
2. Motor Neurons
The neuron is a specialized and an individual cell, which is also known as the nerve cell. A group of neurons when they come together forms a nerve.
Dendrites–A branch-like structure that functions by receiving messages from other neurons and allows the transmission of messages to the cell body.
Cell Body–Each neuron has a cell body with a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other components.
Axon–Axon is a tube-like structure that functions by carrying an electrical impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals for passing the impulse to another neuron.
Synapse– This structure functions by permitting the entry of a neuron to move an electrical or chemical signal from one neuron to another neuron.
seo images

Figure: Structure of a neuron

The neurons comprise the nervous system. There are two different kinds of nervous system in the body. They are the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS comprises all the associated nerves.