Describe the human excretory system. Write a note on the vertical section of the kidney.

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Hint: The food eaten is digested through various metabolic activities and as a result nitrogenous waste products are produced. Several toxins and other harmful materials get accumulated in the body as a byproduct of the several biochemical processes which are needed to be excreted from the body.

Complete answer:
The removal of nitrogenous waste products that are produced as a result of different types of metabolic activities from the body is known as the excretion and the system of organs that aid in the process of excretion and also maintaining homeostasis is called as the excretory system. In humans, the excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder.
The kidneys are the main organ of excretion in humans. The kidneys function to filter the urea and other waste products from the blood and urine is produced and the urine is then moved to the urinary bladder for excretion. The pairs of kidneys individually are attached to a tube-like structure known as the ureter. The ureter carries urine from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. Ureters pass from the pelvis of the kidneys and descend into the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular structure which stores the urine before the excretion. The urine is excreted through the urethra.
The kidneys are bean-shaped paired organs that are present in the lower abdomen. The kidneys are made up of nephrons, which are the functional units of the kidneys. The vertical section of the kidney reveals the various structural details such as the renal capsule, renal cortex, renal medulla, and the pelvis.
The kidneys are covered by a layer of tough fibrous tissues which is known as the renal capsule. The kidney is divided internally into two major structures which are the outer renal cortex and inner medulla. The renal pyramids are conical structures that contain the renal cortex surrounding the renal medulla. The nephrons are found in the span of the cortex and the medulla. The cortex bears the initial filtration portion of the nephron which is known as the renal corpuscles. It then descends into the renal tubule which is present in the medulla part. The tip of the renal pyramids moves to the minor calyx and then to the major calyx and it finally moves to the ureters.

Note: The kidneys along with the ureters and the urinary bladder forms the excretory system in humans. The kidneys are paired organs that function to filter the nitrogenous wastes from the blood and produce urine. The ureter arises from the pelvis of the kidney and carries the urine to the urinary bladder for excretion. The kidney is internally divided into two important parts which is the medulla and the cortex.