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\[COOH - C{H_2} - COOH\] (Malonic acid) on heating produces:
Acetic acid
Carbon dioxide
Malonic anhydride
Acetic anhydride

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Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The IUPAC Name of the Malonic acid is Propanedioic acid and is a dicarboxylic acid. The salts and esters of Malonic acid are known as Malonates. The molecular formula of Malonic acid is \[COOH - C{H_2} - COOH\]

Complete step by step answer:
In many fruits and vegetables Malonic acid is naturally found. It has been found that this acid is actively found in the citrus fruits produced through organic farming compared to the traditional methods of obtaining the citrus fruits. In 1858 this acid was first produced by its oxidation.
On heating the Malonic acid it gives the acetic acid as the main product and carbon dioxide as the side product of the reaction.
\[COOH - C{H_2} - COOH\xrightarrow{{Heat}}C{H_3}COOH + C{O_2}\]

Thus the main product predominantly formed during the above reaction is the Acetic acid.
Due to its versatile nature and as it is the precursor of the polyesters and is widely used in the polymer industry. Due to its wider applications it is also used in the protection of coatings from the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations of the sun. It is also used in the flavour and fragrance industry. The acidity can be easily controlled through the consumption of the Malonic acid and thus it is used for that purpose in the food and drugs industries. It can also be used as a natural preservative. The US Department of Energy has listed the Malonic acid in the top 30 chemicals to be produced from biomass which is an environmentally friendly technique.

So, the correct answer is Option A,B

Note:
It also plays an important role in the Biochemical reactions which occur in our body and is used as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase complex used in the ETC (Electron Transport Chain).