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What are the similarities between Hydrogen and Halogens?

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Last updated date: 14th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: At normal temperature and pressure, the halogens are the only periodic table group that includes elements in three of the main states of matter. Hydrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic, non-metallic, highly combustible diatomic gas at normal temperature and pressure.

Complete answer:
The similarities between hydrogen and halogens are as follows:
(a) The noble gas configuration of hydrogen necessitates the addition of one electron. Halogens need one electron to achieve noble gas configuration.
Electronic configuration of hydrogen: ${\text{1}}{{\text{s}}^{\text{1}}}$
Halogens' electronic configuration in general: ${\text{n}}{{\text{s}}^{\text{2}}}{\text{n}}{{\text{p}}^{\text{5}}}$
(b) Both hydrogen and halogen are non-metals. (With the exception of iodine, which has a metallic character)
(c) They behave as negative ions when mixed with metals.
(d) They have diatomic molecules.
(e) Ionic and covalent bonds may be formed by hydrogen and halogens.
(f) Hydrogen and halogen combine with metals and nonmetals to form compounds.
(e) Hydrogen, like halogens, has a proclivity for attracting electrons.
      \[
  {\text{H}}\,{\text{ + }}\,{{\text{e}}^ - }\, \to \,{{\text{H}}^{\text{ - }}}\,\left( {{\text{hydride}}\,{\text{ion}}} \right) \\
  {\text{Cl}}\,{\text{ + }}\,{{\text{e}}^{\text{ - }}}\, \to \,{\text{C}}{{\text{l}}^{\text{ - }}}\,\left( {{\text{chlorine}}\,{\text{ion}}} \right) \\
 \]
(g) In addition to having an oxidation state of $ + 1$, hydrogen also has an oxidation state of $ - 1$ in some of its products, similar to halogens.
${\text{NaH}}$(Oxidation state of ${\text{H}}\,{\text{ = }}\,{\text{ - 1}}$)
 ${\text{NaCl}}$(Oxidation state of ${\text{Cl}}\,{\text{ = }}\,{\text{ - 1}}$)
(h) Hydrogen, like halogens, has a valency of one.

Note:
Many nonmetallic elements readily form covalent compounds with hydrogen, but the majority of hydrogen on Earth is in molecular forms like water or organic compounds. When halogens are bonded to hydrogen, they all produce acids. The majority of halogens are made from minerals or salts.