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What are the ridges and grooves called in the human brain?

Last updated date: 21st Jul 2024
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Hint: The brain is present in the cranial cavity of the skull and it is mainly divided into the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. In the forebrain part of the cerebrum, the surface of the cortex is greatly folded by upward fold with ridges and downward fold with grooves.

Complete Answer:
The outer portion of the cerebral hemisphere is covered with the cerebral cortex and the surface of the cortex is greatly folded.

The upward fold is gyri which are also known as ridges and the downward fold or groove is sulci.

The cerebrum is the major part of the brain and it is present in the forebrain which constitutes a four-fifth part of brain weight. A deep cleft is present in the cerebrum which divides the cerebrum into the right and left hemisphere which is connected by the corpus callosum. The sulci and gyri provide the greater surface area in the brain. Two-thirds of the surface of the cortex is hidden in sulci and the deep and wide sulci are known as fissures. Three sulcus divides the cerebral hemisphere into four lobes known as the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe and all these lobes perform different functions. The central sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobe, the lateral sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobe and the parieto-occipital lobe sulcus separates the parietal and occipital lobe.

It is assumed that the grooves and ridges present in the brain define intelligence because as the brain increases in size more neurons get developed which needs more space therefore folds get developed to increase the space in the cortex.