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What are some examples of trigonal $ s{{p}^{2}} $ hybrids?

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Last updated date: 16th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint :We know that the hybridization is the intermixing of orbitals containing the same energy to form a new orbital. In $ s{{p}^{2}} $ hybridization, one s-orbital and two p-orbital combines to form a new $ s{{p}^{2}} $ hybrid orbital.

Complete Step By Step Answer:
Hybridization is defined as the mixing of two or more atomic orbits having the same energy to form a degenerated new orbital. When two atomic orbits join together to form a hybrid orbital, results in the redistribution of energy of the orbitals of atoms to form orbitals of similar energy. On the basis of types of orbital involved in the mixing to form new orbitals, the hybridization is classified as $ sp,s{{p}^{2}},s{{p}^{3}},s{{p}^{3}}d,s{{p}^{3}}{{d}^{2}},s{{p}^{3}}{{d}^{3}}. $ When one s-orbital and two p- orbital of same energy level combine to form three new orbits, the resulting hybrid orbital is and the hybridization is also . The mixture of s-orbital and p-orbital forms a trigonal planar geometry and the shape is trigonal planar. In this symmetry, all the three orbitals remain in the same plane and are placed at from each other. Each hybrid orbital is formed of $ 33.33\text{ }% $ s character and $ 66.66\text{ }% $ p character.
In order for an atom to be $ s{{p}^{2}} $ hybridized, its steric number, which tells you how many regions of electron density surround an atom, must be equal to three. Three regions of electron density $ \to $ three hybrid orbitals. In order for a molecule to have a trigonal planar molecular geometry, its central atom must be bonded to three atoms and have no lone pairs of electrons present. Some examples of trigonal $ s{{p}^{2}} $ hybrids is $ CO_{3}^{2-};\text{ }C{{H}_{2}}O $ ; Boron trifluoride, BF3, and boron trichloride, $ BC{{l}_{3}} $ are excellent examples of $ s{{p}^{2}} $ trigonal planar.

Note :
Remember that if two atoms are bonded with the central atom and one lone pair is present then the shape of trigonal planar geometry becomes bent. In other words, all the three regions of electron density that surround the atom must be bonds to other atoms.