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What are ionic or electrovalent compounds? Give an example of an ionic compound. Explain with reason four properties of these compounds.

Last updated date: 20th Jul 2024
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Hint :We know that an ionic bond is defined as that bond between a metal and a non-metal which is responsible to hold the oppositely charged ions by the strong electrostatic force of attraction. The bond formed as a result of the transference of electrons from the outermost shell of metal to the outermost shell of a non-metal is alternatively known as an electrovalent bond.

Complete Step By Step Answer:
The chemical compounds formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from the outermost shell of metal to the outermost shell of a non-metal are called electrovalent compounds. Ionic compounds are those compounds which are formed by the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal. For example, $ NaCl. $ Physical nature: Ionic compounds are hard and solid due to strong force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. Melting point and boiling point: As more energy is required to break strong bonds. So, they have high melting points and boiling points. Solubility: These are soluble in water (polar solvent) but insoluble in organic solvent. Conduction of electricity: They conduct electricity in solution or molten state as ions move towards opposite electrodes.
There is only one electron in the outermost shell of Sodium $ \,~\left( Na \right) $ atom and if it loses that electron from its outermost shell i.e. the M shell then the L shell becomes the outermost shell and it has a stable octet. There are eleven protons in the nucleus of this atom but the number of electrons has become ten, this gives the sodium atom a positive charge and creates a sodium cation.

Note :
Remember that however, they can conduct electricity in their fused, molten and in their aqueous solution. In solid-state, they do not conduct electricity as the ions are not free but held by the strong electrostatic force. But in an infused or molten state, these forces of attraction get weakened and thus the ions become free to conduct electricity. In aqueous solution, the high dielectric constant overcomes the strong electrostatic force of attraction, thus making the ions free to conduct electric current.