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An atom with high electronegativity has:
(a)Large size
(b)High ionization potential
(c)Low electron affinity
(d)Low ionization potential

Last updated date: 24th Jul 2024
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Hint: This question is from the chapter classification of elements and periodicity in properties. We know that every element has some electronegativity but we want to talk about the atom which has high electronegativity, which means we want to study about the properties of that atom.

Complete answer:
 Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons to itself. The other name of electronegativity is electron affinity. The atom which has high electronegativity has high ionization potential. There are two factors which affect the atom’s electronegativity and these are atomic number and the distance at which its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. High electronegativity means that the atom or a substituent group can attract more electrons. There is also the opposition of electronegativity and that is electropositivity (it is a measure of an atom or an element to donate the electrons).
Hence, option b is the correct answer.

Electronegativity was first introduced by the scientist named Jons Jacob Berzelius in $1811$ and it was also studied by the scientist Avogadro. But an accurate scale of electronegativity was developed by Linus Pauling in $1932$ and it depends on the bond energies. We cannot measure electronegativity directly. It must be calculated from other atomic or molecular properties. We generally calculate the electronegativity with the help of the Pauling scale. It is a dimensionless quantity.