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A sigma bond is formed by the overlapping of?

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Last updated date: 24th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The highest covalent chemical bond is a sigma bond. They're made up of atomic orbitals that collide head-on. For diatomic molecules, sigma bonding is best described using the terminology and resources of symmetry groups.

Complete answer:
The highest covalent chemical bond is a sigma bond. They're made up of atomic orbitals that collide head-on. For diatomic molecules, sigma bonding is best described using the terminology and resources of symmetry groups.
Both single bonds are, in general, sigma bonds. The following atomic orbital combinations may be used to make them.
s – s Overlapping
One ‘s' orbital from each participating atom undergoes head-on overlapping around the internuclear axis in this form of overlapping. Before a s orbital will overlap with another, it must be half-filled.
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Example: Hydrogen
s – p Overlapping
Along the internuclear axis, one half-filled s orbital overlaps with one half-filled p orbital, forming a covalent bond.
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Example: Ammonia
p-p overlapping
One half-filled p orbital from each participating atom overlaps head-on along the internuclear axis in this condition.
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Example: Chlorine

Hence, Option C is the correct answer.

Note:
The highest covalent chemical bond is a sigma bond. They're made up of atomic orbitals that collide head-on. For diatomic molecules, sigma bonding is best described using the terminology and resources of symmetry groups.
Both single bonds are, in general, sigma bonds. The following atomic orbital combinations may be used to make them.