Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon

(a) Explain the variation of ionisation energy along the group and period.
(b) Write any five uses of fluorine.

Last updated date: 20th Jul 2024
Total views: 348.9k
Views today: 10.48k
348.9k+ views
Hint :The ordered list of all the chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number—that is, the total number of protons in the atomic nucleus—is referred to as the periodic table. When chemical elements are grouped in this way, their properties follow a recurring pattern known as the "periodic law," in which elements in the same column (group) have similar properties. Dmitry I. Mendeleyev's initial discovery, made in the mid-nineteenth century, has been invaluable to the advancement of chemistry.

Complete Step By Step Answer:
Let us first talk about bit (a).
The amount of energy needed to detach the most loosely bound electron from an isolated neutral gaseous atom in its lowest energy state is known as an element's ionisation energy.
 $ {M_{(g)}} + Energy\xrightarrow{{{I_1}}}M_{(g)}^ + \_{e^ - } $
Ionisation energy varies on a regular basis.
Across the Period: Throughout the time, the ionisation energy value rises from left to right, with breaks where atoms can achieve a stable configuration by losing an electron. As we progress through time, the effective nuclear charge increases, the size decreases, and removing electrons from the valence shell becomes more difficult. As a result, the ionisation energy rises.
Down the group: From top to bottom, the value of ionisation energy decreases. Since atomic size increases as we pass down the group, nuclear attraction decreases, and it becomes easier to detach electrons from the valence shell. As a result, the ionisation energy decreases.
(b) Uses of fluorine:
1. Fluorine is needed for the production of nuclear fuel and the insulation of electric towers.
2. Etching glass is done with hydrogen fluoride, a fluorine compound.
3. Sulfur hexafluoride, the insulating gas for high-power electricity transformers, is also made from it.
4. Fluorine is used in a variety of fluorochemicals, such as solvents and high-temperature plastics like Teflon.
5. Fluorine is found in trace quantities in water, air, plants, and animals.

Note :
In chemistry and physics, ionisation is any process that converts electrically neutral atoms or molecules to electrically charged atoms or molecules (ions). Ionization is one of the primary mechanisms by which radiation, such as charged particles and X-rays, converts energy to matter.