We live in a world that is full of analog things. There are an n number of or we can say infinite amounts of colors to the object paint that is even if the difference is indiscernible to our eye so there are several infinite tones we can hear. And there are an infinite number of smells that we can smell. The very common theme among all of these analog signals is their infinite possibilities.
Analog and Digital Explained
The signals are Digital and analog with the objects that deal in the realm of the discrete or finite. These things mean that there is a limited set of values they can be. That means just two total values which are possible and are 255, 4, 294, 967, 296, or we can say that anything as long as it's not a ∞ (symbol of infinity).
Working with electronics means dealing with both analog signals and digital signals outputs and inputs. Our projects are electronics that have to interact with the real world. That is the world of analog in some way but most of our microprocessors as well as the computers along with the logic units are purely digital components.
These two are mainly different types of signals that are like different electronic languages. Some of the electronics components are said to be bi-lingual while on other hand the others can only understand and speak one of the two.
In this tutorial we'll cover the basics of both of them; they are digital and analog signals. These also include examples of each. We'll also talk about circuits of analog and digital and their components.
Characteristics of Analog Signal:
They are time-varying
The lowest and highest values are either positive or negative.
It is frequently dodged between periodic or non-periodic.
The accuracy is low compared to digital signals.
Their output is like Line, Graph or Curve; it's not meant for everything.
Characteristics of Digital Signal:
They are continuous signals.
They can be transmitted and processed better compared to analog signals.
They are widely used and are versatile.
Their accuracy is better than analog signals.
Digital communication methods:
Based on either the nature of signals which are transmitted or by nature of the information the communication system may be digital. If even one of them is digital then we consider it as a digital communications system. Based on data and signal types there are a total of four possible combinations:
Analog data, analog signal: Converting the analog signal into an analog signal is known as modulation other analog signals. The analog data is a description of the analog signal.
Analog data, digital signal: To transmit a digital signal between two or more users a dedicated connection is required. For transmitting analog data, it was first converted to digital form. This is known as sampling or encoding.
Digital data, analog signal: It is used to send computer data over transmission channels that require analog signals.
Digital data, digital signal: The computers use a binary number system to perform operations. In other words, the digital data is in the form of bits represented by zeros and ones. Hence to communicate between two digital users a PCM(pulse code modulation) is used.
Difference Between Analog and Digital
The concepts that are digital and analog stand on their own and don't require a lot of previous knowledge of electronics. That said if you haven't been already we should peek through some of these tutorials that are:
The current, the Voltage, the Resistance, and Ohm's Law.
Next is what is a Circuit.
And then some mathematics concepts that include reading graphs and understanding the difference between finite and infinite sets.
The signals we're talking about are time-varying "quantities" which convey some sort of information. In engineering of electrical, the quantity that's time-varying is usually voltage that if not that then usually current. So when we are talking about signals we just think of them as a voltage that's changing over time.
Then we can say that usually the signals are transmitted through wires but they could also pass through the air to the frequency of radio that is also known as the waves of RF. The audio signals for example might be transferred between our computer's card of audio and speakers while signals of data might be passed through the air which is between a tablet and a router of WiFi.
Take an example that the analog voltage that is coming out of your wall socket might be clamped which is between -120V and +120V but there is a thing that we increase the resolution to more and more. we discover an infinite number that is of values that the signal can be that is like 64.4V, 64.42V, 64.424V and infinite that increasingly values precisely.
Pros on Analog and Digital System
Here we are the pros/benefits of signals which are analog:
The Easier in processing.
The Best suited is for audio and video transmission.
The Uses have less bandwidth than digital sounds.
The Provider signals analog transmitting the more accurate representation of a sound.
Then next It is the natural form of a sound.
They have a much higher density and can present a better information
They are less sensitive in terms of electric tolerance.
When data is transmitted to long distances then it may result in signal disturbances.
They are prone to generation loss
When compared to digital signals that have higher immunity. The analog signals are subjected to noise and distortion.
They are generally of lower quality signals than digital signals.
Here, are the pros/advantages of Digital Signals:
The data which is Digital that can be easily compressed.
Then any of the information in the digital form can be encrypted.
The Equipment that uses digital signals is more common and less expensive.
They can convey information with less distortion, interference and noise.
They can be easily reproduced in mass quantities at a lower cost.
They are flexible due to DSP operations which can be altered by using digital programmable systems.
The probability of error occurrence can be decreased by assigning error detection and correction codes by using digital signals as they are more accurate.
By using semiconductor chips they can easily store any magnetic media or optical media.
They can easily be transmitted to long distances.
When transmitting information we need higher bandwidth for digital communication compared to analog communication.
Top internal hardware resources and high signal speed are processed by the DSP processes. Analog signal processing requires passive components that consume less energy whereas due to the above process the digital signals require higher power dissipation.
The systems and processing are complex.
Digital and Analog signals: Applications and Systems
The analog signal is used in traditional audio and communication. Although due to advances in silicon technologies, encryption requirements, encoding algorithms, and also increase in bandwidth efficiencies many systems have swapped to transform as digital. Yet there are legacy and benefits of using analog signals in some of the applications. To capture or transmit the information analog signals are used by most of the systems which intend to interfere with real-world signals. A few uses have been listed below:
Sound recording and reproduction
Sensors for checking the temperature
Image recognition sensors
Telephonic communications devices
Though analog signals are used in many original communication systems digital signals are used in recent technologies because of their perks such as bandwidth efficiency, noise immunity, encryption, and even use of repeaters for long-distance transmission. The uses of the digital signal are mentioned below:
Communication systems such as broadband, cellular.
Data and networking communication
Programmability used for digital interfaces.