## Introduction

Any material has many physical and chemical properties. Density is one of these properties. Density is a physical property. Density tells about mass in unit volume. Density in simple words is a measure of material that lies in a unit volume of any substance.

Steel is not a natural element that is found on the surface of the earth. Steel is an alloy that we create after going through a series of procedures. It is also more dense than many natural elements, with a high density. Furthermore, we will cover the density of steel and how to calculate the density of metal in this topic.

Archimedes

Archimedes (c. 287 – c. 212 BC) was possibly the best scientist in the world – at least in the classical period. He was an astronomer, physicist, mathematician, inventor, and engineer. Many of his thoughts, inventions, and concepts are still used today. His "Eureka" moment, when he discovered the idea of buoyancy, is perhaps his most well-known achievement.

According to Archimedes principle, the upward buoyant force exerted on a body submerged in a fluid, whether wholly or partially, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces. Archimedes principle is a fundamental physics law in fluid mechanics. Archimedes principle introduced the concept of density. The density of any material can be determined with the help of archimedes principle

## What is Density?

Before we start with the density of metal and density of metal formula, let us first understand what is density. So, whether an object will float or sink is determined by its density. The density of an object can be defined as the mass per unit volume, mathematically we write:

$\rho=\dfrac{M}{V}$

Where,

⍴ - The density of an object

M - The mass of an object

V - The volume of an object

Do you know why a little pebble sinks to the bottom of a glass of water while a massive log floats on the river's surface? The answer to this question is density. The pebble has a higher density than the water, yet the tree has a lower density.

The phrase density, in general, refers to the amount of anything contained inside a certain region. Density is also an intensive property, meaning that no matter how much of an object there is, its density remains constant.

Density can be expressed in kilograms per square meter cubed (kg/m3), grams per centimeter cubed (g/cm3), grams per meter cubed (g/m3), or pounds per inch cubed (lb/in3). Now let us have a look at the density of metal and density of steel in detail.

## Density of Metal & Density of Metal Formula

A metal's density relates to how much a specific amount of it weighs. The density of a metal is a physical property that remains constant regardless of how much or how little metal we have. We can determine the density of a metal by measuring its volume and mass.

The density of the metal can be determined by using the density of metal formula. The density of the metal formula is given by:

$\text{Density of metal}=\dfrac{\text{Mass of metal}}{\text{Volume of metal}}$

## Introduction To Steel

Steel is a metal alloy composed primarily of iron (with some carbon, manganese, some aluminum or silicon for detoxification, and possibly some other alloys). Furthermore, because the alloy components are present in such minute amounts, they have no impact on steel density.

High-density alloys, on the other hand, generate steel with a higher density. As a result, steel density ranges from 7750 kg/m3 to 8050 kg/m3. Steel, on the other hand, is not the densest alloy or metal. Furthermore, aluminum, iron, and gold have higher densities than steel.

## Properties of Steel

Steel is a very useful metal in construction. It is lightweight and its strength is very high, making this metal most useful in construction work. Steel has a very low weight-to-strength ratio.

Properties of steel include :

1. Strength

Because all basic rules give a design code that revolves around an object's strength, strength is the most significant property that designers consider. Furthermore, tensile strength allows for a wide range of values to be used to set product standards.

2. Deductibility

It is the property of metals that allows us to deform or lengthen them. This also determines the start of the performance as well as the following fracture caused by the tensile stress. Furthermore, while creating a material, its ductility is critical, and several factors must be considered, including:

In the material's limit state, the stress should be distributed evenly.

Reduce the spread of fatigue cracking as well.

Take into account the bending and strengthening.

Furthermore, understand the importance of welding in design because it reduces toughness.

3. Durability

It is the ability of something to endure for a prolonged period of time. It also depends on the type of coating and materials utilized in the production process. Furthermore, the degree of location, exposure, load, and service life of the design all influence the coating.

It also comprises corrosion-resistant steel and other materials used in the construction of buildings. Furthermore, painting and galvanizing are two of the most prevalent corrosion-prevention methods.

4. Weldability

Steel, like all metals, has this tendency. It does, however, require the application of steel locally for melting, which is then cooled quickly due to the surrounding material's readiness to dissipate heat.

Furthermore, because the weld is small, there is little material to melt and no additional heat is required. It also induces hardening in the heated area, although it lowers the metal's toughness. Most importantly, it is dependent on the constituents of the alloy as well as its fragility.

5. Tenacity

A metal's tenacity is a quality that helps in its resistance to breakage, scratching, cutting, and other sorts of damage. Furthermore, the harder the material is the higher its strength. It also aids them in absorbing the pressure or tension caused by the rapid collision. Furthermore, in the case of steel, this propensity increases as the temperature rises.

## Solved examples

1. A metal is having 5,410 kg mass in 2 m3. Calculate the density of the metal.

Sol:

Given,

Mass of metal = 5,410 kg

Volume of metal = 2 m3

We can calculate the density of metal by given formula:

$\text{Density of metal}=\dfrac{\text{Mass of metal}}{\text{Volume of metal}}$

$\text{Density of metal}=\dfrac{5410 ~kg}{2 ~m^3}=2705 ~kg/m^3$

Therefore, the density of metal is 2705 kg/m3.

2. A metal is having 2160 kg/m3 density. Calculate the density of another metal which is 1.2 times denser than the previous metal.

Sol:

Given,

Density of first metal = 2705 kg/m3

Now, we are asked to determine the mass of the metal. We can calculate mass of the metal by using the following equation of density of metal:

$\text{Density of metal}=\dfrac{\text{Mass of metal}}{\text{Volume of metal}}$

It is given that the second metal is 1.2 times more dense than the first metal.

Therefore we get:

$\text{Density of metal 2}~(\rho_2)=1.2\times\rho_1=1.2\times2160 ~kg/m^3$

$\text{Density of metal 2}~(\rho_2)=2,592~kg/m^3$

The density of metal 2 is 2,592 kg/m3. It means that the mass of metal 2 in per cubic meter is 2,592 kg.

## Interesting facts

The density of water can be varied by adding a few minerals.

Density can be used to identify minerals, which have specific density measurements.

## Conclusion

We conclude that the **density of steel** is one of the most important properties of steel metal. We learned that the density of the metal formula will help us in determining the mass of the metal as well. A few interesting facts helped us understand the importance of density.

## FAQs on Density of Steel

**1. What is the importance of steel in construction?**

Construction is a field where the strength and weight of the material being used is a very important factors. It requires a low weight to strength ratio of the material being used. Steel is the most useful metal for construction. Steel has a low density and high strength as compared to other materials. That makes steel’s weight to strength ratio very low and it finally makes it the first choice in construction. There are many different types of steel available. Carbon percentage is the factor that makes difference in it. Carbon percentage also affects the strength of steel. More carbon in steel makes it brittle. One more quality of steel that makes it useful in construction is corrosion resistance. Steel is corrosion resistant and it helps the structure to last long.

**2. What is the density of metal and how to calculate it?**

Metals are created from non-living things in the earth's crust. The density of metal can be calculated using its mass and volume from any section of it. The density of metal is different from other solids as its properties remain constant in all directions of metal. If we consider any other solid like Glass, its density can vary from point to point. But in the case of metals, we are supposed to calculate the density of any section of metal and it will define the density of that particular metal.

**3. What is the density of steel in kg/m ^{3}?**

The density of steel is about 7860 kg/m^{3}.