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Layers of the Earth

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Last updated date: 23rd Jul 2024
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The Solar System is made up of the Sun and all of the smaller objects that move around it. Apart from the Sun, the largest members of the Solar System are the eight major planets. Nearest the Sun are four fairly small, rocky planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Earth is the planet we live on, the third of eight planets in our solar system and the only known place in the universe to support life. In this article we will read about our planet Earth and its structure and the layers that make up the earth.

Layers of the Earth: 

Earth is made up of three layers like an onion: crust, mantle, and core. These layers are both physically and chemically different from each other. These layers are more close to each other and close to the centre of the earth, these layers also have other layers in them which are always moving.

Layers of Earth

Layers of Earth

Structure of  Earth:

The construction of the dust is detached majorly into four components: the coating, the cloak, the external centre, and the central core.

  • Crust: 35–70 km beneath continents and 5–10 km beneath oceans.

  • Mantle: 70- 2891 km

  • Core: 2891- 6371 km

  • Outer Core: it is in a liquid state. 2891–5150 km

  • Inner Core: it is solid, mainly composed of Fe and traces of Ni. 5150–6371 km

Middle Layer-Mantle:

  • The mantle is the layer present below the crust.

  • The mantle is made up of oxygen silicon and magnesium.

  • The mantle is much thicker than the crust.

  • The depth of the mantle is 3000 km.

Inner Layer-Core:

  • The core is the inner layer of the earth

  • A core is made up of solid iron and nickel

  • The temperature of the earth’s core is about 5000-6000 c

  • The core is divided into two layers: Outer core and Inner core 

Structure of the Earth

Structure of the Earth

Layers of the Earth:

  • The crust is the outer layer of the earth and it consists of rocks, mountains, water, and soil.

  • The mantle is the coating of the ground just lower than the surface. It is mainly composed of oxygen, silicon, and the heavier element magnesium. Known as Siam (Si + am for Magnesium) or Mafic. The mantle itself is divided into layers. The upper part of the mantle is solid and forms the bottom of the crust

  • The core is made of solid iron and nickel and has a temperature of about 5000-6000 °C. The external centre is the liquid coating beneath the mantle.

  • The inner core,  the centre of the earth. Due to the high pressure, it is very hot and solid.

The Outermost Layer of Earth:

  • The layer is the outer sheet of the ground. 

  • This is the finest sheet off the ground.

  • This is the coldest bed on the ground.

  • The “shell” of the earth.

  • It is the layer where we live.

  • This layer is made of solid rock. It is mainly composed of the light elements silicon, oxygen and aluminium.

  • Two types of layers: oceanic surface and global surface.

  • Oceanic crust is thinner than continental crust.

  • The crust and top of the mantle are called the lithosphere.


Each layer has a unique chemical composition and unique physical state that can affect life on the surface of the Earth. Mantle movements caused by thermal fluctuations from the core can shift the plate, causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. : The Earth's layers are to geologists and geophysicists how the Earth was formed,  layers and other planetary bodies are the sources of Earth's resources, and there are many more.

Solved Questions

1. What number is Earth in the solar system?

Ans: Earth is the third globe in the solar system.

2. How old is the world?

Ans: Earth is 4.543 billion years old.

3. What was the first animal on Earth?

Ans: Earth's first animal was the ocean-drifting comb jelly.

FAQs on Layers of the Earth

1. What is the importance of the outer layer to us?

The frozen hull of the earth is very important to us. This thin crust, like the skin of an apple, sets the stage for the development of human life and civilization. It has precious soil and gives us most of our minerals.

2. What do we study in different parts of the globe?

Scientists use waves to study different layers of the earth. Usually, they use seismic waves generated by earthquakes and nuclear test explosions. Seismic waves bend, accelerate, decelerate, and reflect as they penetrate the Earth's formations.

3. Why is the crust the only layer suitable for humans?

The crust is the top layer of the earth. It consists of continental land masses and marine beds. Sial and Sima are present in these components. The crust is also composed of biological factors such as soil and rocks that are essential for the survival of living organisms. For this reason, the crust is suitable for human settlement.

4. What is the significance of the Earth's layers?

Earth's layers reveal to geologists and geophysicists how Earth formed, the layers that make up other planetary bodies, the source of Earth's resources, and much more.

5. How does the Earth form?

When the solar system settled into its current configuration about 4.5 billion years ago, gravity drew swirling gas and dust in to form the third planet from the Sun. Like the other terrestrial planets, Earth has a central core, a rocky mantle, and a solid crust.