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Which one of the following options gives one correct example of convergent evolution and
divergent evolution?
A. Convergent evolution: Eyes of octopus and mammals, Divergent evolution: Bones of
forelimbs of vertebrates.
B. Convergent evolution: Thorns of Bougainvillea and tendrils, Divergent evolution: Wings of
butterflies and birds.
C. Convergent evolution: Bones of forelimbs of vertebrates, Divergent evolution: Wings of
butterflies and birds.
D. Convergent evolution: Thorns of Bougainvillea and tendrils, Divergent evolution: Eyes of
octopus and mammals.

Last updated date: 19th Jul 2024
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Hint:- When two species having no common ancestors develop common characters then it is convergent evolution and when two species having common ancestors develop different characters it is divergent evolution.

Complete Answer:-
Our universe, stars, earth, plants and we ourselves have undergone evolution several times and we still might be going through it unknowingly. Evidence of evolution is found in ancient fossil fuels, soil sediments, rock sediments which store the remains of several organisms that existed millions of years ago and are now extinct like the Dinosaurs. Study of fossil fuels indicate that some life forms of plants and animals were limited to a certain period of time after which they disappeared due to several unknown reasons. These life forms are studied by comparative analysis of their anatomy and morphology with the present day life forms. While studying these life forms differences and similarities with the existing life forms can be seen. Similarities help to link them with their common ancestors.
The forelimbs of mammals, Cheetah, bats and whales have the same bone arrangements though all of them have different functions. So it means that all these forelimbs in different animals evolved in different directions according to their needs. This is Divergent evolution. Other examples of such evolution are – Heart and brain of vertebrates, Tendrils and thorns in Cucurbita and Bougainvillia. The structure that developed in different directions but having the same anatomical arrangements are known as homologous structures and they indicate common ancestry.
In the case of wings of birds and butterflies the physiological appearance or function is the same – meant for flying but the anatomical structure when observed is completely different. Such structures are known as analogous structures and they indicate lack of common ancestry. This is Convergent evolution. Other examples are – Flippers of Dolphins and Penguins and Eyes of Mammals and Octopus.
Thus, the right option is A.

Additional Information : -
- Same characters in Convergent evolution are developed due to similar habitats.
- Root modification in sweet potato and shoot modification in potato is an example of Convergent evolution.
- Common ancestry of an organism can be found by checking the performance of their genes and proteins which are performing similar functions.

Note:- Evolution is a result of several factors – change in habitat, Industrialisation, Mutation, Adaptation to different living conditions and many more. The greatest example of evolution is that of the giraffe neck, it elongated as the height of trees increased and they had nothing left on their level of height to eat so they extended their neck and it was a feature that kept on evolving generation after generation.