Hint: Various types of enzymes are utilized in the production of detergents for simple and effective cleaning of different stains with least possible damage to fabrics and the environment also. Some enzymes are already widely employed in detergents to get rid of a range of common stains:
1.Proteases remove human sweat, blood and egg.
2.Amylases remove starch residues from chocolate, gravies and pasta.
3.Cellulases brighten the colour of cotton blends and soften the material by modifying the fabric’s structure.
Dirt comes in various many forms which includes proteins, starches, lipids. Additionally, clothes that are starched must be freed of the starch. Using detergents in water at high temperatures and with vigorous mixing, it's possible to get rid of most kinds of dirt but the price of heating the water is high and lengthy mixing or beating will shorten the lifetime of clothing and other materials. The employment of enzymes allows lower temperatures to be used and shorter periods of agitations are needed, often after a preliminary period of soaking.
Lipase is a type of enzyme. Enzymes are protein molecules used as catalysts to hurry up a reaction. They act specifically, meaning that every enzyme only works on a specific molecule. As an example, lipase binds to fatty substances but wouldn't bind to sugary compounds. Enzymes don't get depleted during a reaction and may act as a catalyst repeatedly.
A.Lipase is an enzyme that breaks down lipids (fats). Most act at a selected location along the glycerol chain so different lipases can target specific styles of fats. Employing a specific selection of lipases on a substrate may create a selected final product. Lipase is an additive to detergents. The enzyme breaks down the oily stain, then surfactants within the detergent attach to the remnants of the stain to get rid of it from the clothing.
B.Lipase is used on the surface of materials to make sure easy removal of oil. It works by forming a fabric-lipase complex on the surface of the clothing that makes a barrier. The barrier stops the enzyme from being removed during washing and prevents oily substances from being deposited on the fabric. It remains active once the clothing is dry.
C.Enzymatic cleaning of medical instruments before they undergo disinfection is additionally typical. Lipase detergent can help remove the biofilm left on gastrointestinal endoscopes and difficult stains and particles left on orthopedic and laparoscopic surgical instruments. They also clean delicate instruments used for microsurgical ophthalmic procedures.
Lipases, though, represent the foremost important group of biocatalysts within the biotechnology industry due to their commercial potential. They’re biodegradable, non-toxic, easy to provide in large quantities and tailorable for a spread of substrates.
The automotive industry uses lipase to process biodiesel, changing edible fat into fuel. This use makes it a desirable alternative for costlier, energy-intensive chemicals. The commercial food industry uses lipases to supply cheese and yogurt, and research is investigating its use in baking. Recently have researchers found lipases that were suitable to be used in detergents. Lipases must meet the subsequent qualities to be effective in an exceedingly detergent:
1.Active at low temperatures
2.Stable at high temperatures
3.Active in alkaline conditions
4.Stable within the presence of other additives
5.Gentle on skin
6.Active on a range of materials
Hence, the correct answer is option (C)
Note: Biological detergents contain enzymes that may break down stains, while non-biological detergents use other methods of stain removal. Non-biological detergents are capable of tackling some tough stains with harsh chemicals, high temperatures, longer soaking times however, biological detergents are effective even at lower temperatures and on quicker wash cycles than non-biological ones. That translates into savings for the patron and fewer environmental impacts by the manufacturer.