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What do you mean by speciation?

Answer
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Hint:
 Evolution is one of the various factors responsible for speciation. Herbert Spencer gave the term evolution. It is the process of gradual changes that happen continuously even now. It is a never-ending process and leads to the development of the different species. It is of two types: inorganic evolution and organic evolution.

Complete answer:
Speciation: Formation of new species from pre-existing species is called speciation. It is an evolutionary process in which the species is evolved by the modifications in the genetics. Speciation is caused due to various factors.
Speciation is of the two types:
Phyletic speciation- In this there is the formation of the new species from the pre-existing species but in this case, there is the death of the parent.
Gradual speciation- In this there is the slow transformation of an isolated population into a new species with the help of variations in the generation by generation.
Rapid speciation: It causes mutation.
Patterns of speciation:
Allopatric speciation: In this, there is the formation of the new species which occurs in the different geographical areas. Reproductive isolation is the reason for this.
Sympatric speciation: In this, there is the formation of the new species which happens to occur in the same geographical area. It also requires reproductive isolation.
Parapatric speciation: In this, the two populations are not separated by any barriers. They are adjacent to each other. It also requires reproductive isolation.

Note: Reproductive isolation means the lack of ability to breed between two members of a population of two species. This can be achieved by the means of various barriers like geographical, mechanical, zygotic mortality, gametic mortality, etc. The process of speciation takes place due to the mutation.
Last updated date: 02nd Jun 2023
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