The best and latest technique for isolation, purification and separation of organic compounds is:
Hint: This technique is based on adsorption and absorption of sample particles to a particular substance. It can only be used to get qualitative results.
Complete answer: The technique we are talking about is chromatography. It is actually a qualitative technique, which means it is good at detecting, identifying or separating particular components from a mixture, unlike a quantitative test where we can determine the amount of a particular sample. Let’s understand the concept of chromatography, in other words, the fundamental laws that govern this phenomenon. Two immiscible phases are usually used to carry out this technique- a phase can be a solid, a liquid or a gas- and a sample is taken that has to be separated into individual components. Now, due to the individual physical and chemical properties of both samples and the phases, the solubility in either will actually be different. To understand what was written above we take an example; let the two phases be oil and water. They are immiscible and therefore perfectly fit our cause. The sample that has to be separated will be a mixture of salt and sugar. Now this mixture will have different solubility in either of the phases. Most likely, the salt will readily dissolve in water as it is a polar solvent and will remain undissolved in oil; while sugar will dissolve in both oil and water, although it is true that sugar will dissolve much faster and readily in latter than in former. Here, we can separate the mixture due to the relative solubility of individual components, i.e. salt and sugar. From the two phases, one is kept as a stationary phase and the other is a mobile phase. The sample is run through them and it separates into individual components because of its relative solubility.
Note: Chromatography can be used to separate, identify or detect any solid liquid or gas, provided there are phases which can work with them. The solid samples have to be crushed into microscopic particles that are able to dissolve in any one of the phases.
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