Question
Answers

Single-step large mutation leading to speciation is
(a)Founder effect
(b)Adaptive radiation
(c)Saltation
(d)Branching descent
(e)Natural selection

Answer
VerifiedVerified
91.5k+ views
Hint: This is a sudden change that occurs in the gene of one generation and that change will continue in the next generations. The term was given by Hugo de Vries.

Complete answer:
A single-step large mutation that leads to speciation is known as saltation. Saltation is a sudden change that occurs in the gene that gets transferred from one generation to the next, that is large, or very large, in comparison with the usual variation of an organism. The term is used for nongradual changes especially the single-step, that is why the term large mutation is used. The single-step mutation is speciation, can be achieved in a single and in evolutionary terms, for example, mutation by polyploidy in plants.

Additional Information:
-A mutation is an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism or virus.
Mutations result from errors or sudden changes that occur during DNA or viral replication, cause an error during other forms of repair, mitosis, or meiosis, or other types of damage to DNA, which then may undergo error-prone repair or cause an error or permanent change during replication.
The mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation, providing the raw material on which evolutionary forces such as natural selection can act.
The founder effect: When a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population this will result in the loss of genetic variation. This effect is known as the founder effect.
Adaptive radiation: The method during which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a mess of latest forms, especially when a change within the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges or opens new environmental niches is known as adaptive radiation.
Branching descent: the method by which new species originate from one common descent is understood as branching descent.
Natural selection: The differential survival and reproduction of people after the occurrence of differences in phenotype is understood as survival.
So, the correct answer is option (c) 'Saltation'.

Note: Polyploidy is caused as the result of a spontaneous multiplication of a plant’s genetic material or through hybridization and it is most common in domesticated crops.
The mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation, providing the raw material on which evolutionary forces such as natural selection can act.
The single-step mutation is speciation, can be achieved in a single and in evolutionary terms, for example, mutation by polyploidy in plants.