Hint: Muller and Stadler both introduced a new method of the conventional breeding procedure though they have the advantage of increasing the defect without losing an agronomic and quality character in agriculture and increasing crops.
> Option A is incorrect. Organisms that reproduce sexually have two full collections of chromosomes in their somatic cells i.e. diploid (2n). The gametic cells have one set of chromosomes in them i.e. haploid (n). An organism that has more than two chromosomal sets is called polyploid. Such a state is called polyploidy. Physical agents such as heat or cold therapy, X-rays, and chemical agents such as colchicine may induce polyploidy.
> Option B is correct. Sharbati Sonora is one example of a variety of mutant wheat. 'Sharbati Sonora' has contributed to our country's Green Movement. With 3.17% lysine, it has a higher biological and net protein consumption valve. It is a Sonora-64 amber mutant, with early maturity and synchronous tillering habit. Genetic mutations are of great significance in the breeding of plants, as they provide important inputs for both evolution and recombination and selection. It is the only way to develop seedless cultivation.
> Option C is incorrect. Hybridization is the process of generating new varieties of crops in which two or more, unlike genetically formed plants, are mixed resulting in a progeny called hybrid. Hybridization provides crop enhancement and is the most effective way of integrating the desirable characters of two or more species or varieties. Cotton Mather witnessed the first natural hybridization in maize.
> Option D is incorrect. Plant quarantine measures are intended to protect a country or region's agriculture against the possible ravages of alien pests/pathogens if introduced and developed. These initiatives are especially important and applicable to countries such as India whose economy is focused largely on agriculture. This is a procedure that ensures disease- and pest-free plants, isolating a plant when checking to detect the presence of a problem.
Hence, The correct answer is option (B).
Note: Mutations can be induced by X-rays, UV, alpha, beta, gamma waves, and chemicals including caesium, EMS, nitromethyl urea to introduce a better crop variety.