Hint: Pulses are annual leguminous crops that produce one to twelve grains or seeds of varying size, form, and colour within a pod and are used for both food and feed.
The word "pulses" refers to crops grown solely for dry grain, except crops grown green for fruit, which is known as vegetable crops, as well as crops grown primarily for oil extraction and leguminous crops grown solely for sowing.
Pulses, in addition to being an essential source of nutrition for a significant portion of the world's population, contribute to healthier soils and climate change mitigation due to their nitrogen-fixing properties.
Major pulses grown and consumed in India include Bengal Gram (Desi ChickPea / Desi Chana), Pigeon Peas (Arhar / Toor / Red Gram), Green Beans (Moong Beans), ChickPeas (Kabuli Chana), Black Matpe (Urad / Mah / Black Gram), Red Kidney Beans (Rajma), Black Eyed Peas (Lobia), Lentils (Masoor), White Peas (Matar).
India is the world's largest producer (25% of global production), distributor (27% of global consumption), and importer (14% of global imports) of pulses. Pulses account for approximately 20% of the region under food grains and contribute approximately 7-10% of total foodgrains production in the world. Though pulses are grown in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons, Rabi pulses account for more than 60% of total output.
Arhar (pigeon pea/redgram), Urdbean (Blackgram), Mungbean (Greengram), Moth, and Horsegram (kulthi)are the most important Kharif pulses. Tur/arhar has the largest region (36%) and production (48%) share, led by Urdbean and Mungbean.
Rabi/summer pulse crops include gramme (chickpea/Bengal gram), lentil (masur), field pea (matar/batri), urd, mung, and rajmash, among others. Gram crop has the highest area is sown (65% ) and yield (72% ), led by lentil and field pea.
Madhya Pradesh (24.7 %), Maharashtra (15.1 %), Rajasthan (12.4 %), Uttar Pradesh (11.8 %), Andhra Pradesh (8.3 %), and Karnataka (7.6%). are the leading overall pulses producing states when both Kharif and Rabi/summer are combined.
The seven states with more than 84% Kharif season output are Maharashtra (25 %), Rajasthan (15 %), Karnataka (11.2 %), Uttar Pradesh (10.5 %), Madhya Pradesh (9.7 %), Gujarat (6.9 %), and Andhra Pradesh (6 %).
Six states account for more than 81% of Rabi/summer season pulse output. These states are Madhya Pradesh (32.3%), Uttar Pradesh (12.5%), Rajasthan (10.9%), Maharashtra (10.2 %), Andhra Pradesh (9.5%), and Karnataka (9.5%).
Madhya Pradesh (39 %), Rajasthan (14.6%), Maharashtra (14 %), Andhra Pradesh (8.8 %), Karnataka (7.2 %), and Uttar Pradesh are the top six-gramme producing states (6.8 %). These generate more than 90% of the country's total gramme product.
- Gram is the most powerful pulse, accounting for approximately 40% of total output, followed by Tur/Arhar at 15% to 20% and Urad/Black Matpe and Moong at 8% to 10% each.
- The top five pulse-producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka. Pulse productivity is 764 kg/ha.