What is Micropropagation? Write the methods involved with suitable examples.
Hint: Ross Harrison is the father of tissue culture. The plant can produce daughter buds to form a new plant. But now we can generate a whole new plant from just a tiny part of the plant. It is a new technique used to study the field plants. The rapid multiplication will help the study to occur fastly.
Complete answer: Plants are an important part of the ecosystem. They can grow naturally and can be cultured in the labs also to enhance their utility. Plant tissue culture is the branch or application in which the natural plant genes are altered to increase their utility and efficiency for human goods. Micropropagation is one such practice. It is the in-vitro multiplication of the plant under aseptic conditions. This will produce thousands to plants on a large scale. We can develop progeny of the same genetic type. The field plants then help us in the study of their characters. We can convert the small fragments into large plants rapidly by this method. The various methods involved are: Stage1- Choosing suitable explanations: The part that has to be regenerated is chosen carefully. The medium for its growth is prepared. The commonly used explants are axillary buds, shoot tips. Stage2- Culture medium: In the correct medium, the explants grow to form an embryo. The management of light and moisture is important. Stage3- Development of shoot and root: In the medium, rooting and shoots start to arise. They are then directly taken to the soil in the fields to prosper. Stage 4- Acclimatization: They are introduced in the normal environmental conditions to grow. This is the vulnerable step in the whole process. Examples- The plants are grown in-vitro with micropropagation are potato, Banana, Carnation, Begonia, Chrysanthemum etc.
Note: There is the advantage of micropropagation. There can be a large scale production of useful and economical plants. The new plants are true to type. We can develop disease-free plants by modifying them. The important characters can be picked. We can develop better progeny.
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